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BIOS 1100 Mitosis and Meiosis

Spring 2013
by

Olivia Walser

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of BIOS 1100 Mitosis and Meiosis

Lab 3
Mitosis and Meiosis
A Story of Growth
and Reproduction
Housekeeping
part of the cell cycle
diagram on pg. 30
asexual reproduction of prokaryotes
video:
growth of multicellular organisms

MITOSIS
MEIOSIS
one round of division
two rounds of division
2 daughter cells
4 daughter cells
Mitosis
Mitosis
meiosis I
meiosis I
meiosis II
meiosis II
meiosis II
meiosis II
sexual reproduction
gametogenesis
: meiosis in animal male testes and female ovaries gives gametes used

later for fertilization

1n
+
1n
= 2n
1n + 1n = 2n diploid
Cell Divison
For both types, DNA is passed on to the "daughter cells" in the form of chromosomes.
DNA
Chromosomes
Chromosome terms
Sister chromatids
form during DNA duplication in interphase of the cell cycle
cell needs to double up the genetic information!
2012: first
direct
image of DNA
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl3039162
http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22545-dna-imaged-with-electron-microscope-for-the-first-time.html
Press Coverage
Original Publication
diploid
Cell Division
chromosomes move through stages of cell division with help of the "spindle apparatus"
Microtubules
Centrosome
"spindle fibers"
regions at poles of the cell that organize microtubules
Dividing human cell: The centrosomes are shown as gray circles, the chromosomes are in blue, the kinetochores in pink, and the spindle apparatus in green (hairlike strands are microtubules).
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I and Interkinesis
2n diploid
1n
1n
1n
1n
1n
1n
2n diploid
haploid
haploid
haploid
haploid
haploid
haploid
spermatogenesis
gives sperm (1n)

male testes
female ovaries
fertilization
"when sperm meets egg"
oogenesis
gives eggs (1n)

and useless polar bodies
gives 2n cell that then grows by mitosis
final division of cell to give 2 cells
after the completion of mitosis
Homologous chromosomes:
similar chromosome pairs
http://www.scienceprofonline.com/genetics/genetics-terminology-difference-duplicated-homologous-chromosomes.html
one from mom (maternal)
one from dad (paternal)
in humans, 23 PAIRS of homologous chromosomes
Today, will draw like:
Today, will draw like:
if unduplicated
if duplicated
two pairs of
homologous
chromosomes
Did you turn in homework from Lab 2?
Extra credit due Oct. 14 (Mon.) and Oct. 15 (Tues.)
Go over Quiz 1 and HW 1
Lab practical in two weeks!
Example stations set up next week.
Review session Friday October 4th at 11:55am-12:55pm in THIS ROOM
Scientific Literacy
science as a verb and as a noun
-Neil deGrasse Tyson interview
VERB?
NOUN?
facts, definitions, etc.
a way of thinking about
the world, asking questions, etc.
Doing science as a verb will help you remember the facts, definitions, etc.
noun
verb
hereditary material of the cell
b) DNA as chromatin
c) 3-D structure of DNA
chromatin
chromosomes
http://www.protopage.com/teamfiftyone
a) inside the
nucleus
condensation
during early
cell division
2n diploid
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis
G1 of Interphase: growth and prep
S-phase of Interphase

"S" = synthesis, another way to say "duplication"
chromosomes are
copied (duplication)
Why make copies?
Why would a cell
need to grow before
division?
to have something to divide up!
think: cell division vs. ripping a piece of paper in half many times
G2 of Interphase: Growth and Final Prep
Cell is switching gears by making
proteins that help with cell division
Note: DNA still looks like
this during this phase!
first step of interphase after cytokinesis
Cytokinesis
Cell CYCLE:
Remember that each cell will
then go through the cycle again
after division!
in plant cells
in animal cells
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/mitosis.htm
cleavage furrow
preparative phase
middle phase
pro = before
nucleous disappears and chromosomes condense



nuclear membrane gone
frees the chromosomes
http://faculty.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/dna/mitosis/pcprophaseB.html
meta = mid
chromosomes line up in the
middle of the cell
microtubules, or spindle fibers
attach to the chromosomes
division of cytoplasm
cell plate
http://www.bio.txstate.edu/~dlemke/botany/1410lab/lab_exercises/lab3/cell_cycle/cytokinesis.html
kinesis = movement
separation phase
ana = upper
sister chromatids pulled apart by spindle fibers


move to opposites ends of the cell
separated sister chromatids now are unduplicated chromosomes
animals cells
contain centrioles
cylinders
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anaphase_IF.jpg
http://vcell.ndsu.edu/animations/mitosis/Stills/MitosisStill_06.jpg
final phase
telos = end
spindle apparatus disappears
new nuclear envelope forms
chromosomes will soon
uncondense into chromatin
after crossing over in Prophase I, homologous chromosomes separate and line up at metaphase plate
synapses: homologous chromosomes pair up
crossing over: chromosomes exchange genetic information
duplicated chromosomes still intact with sister chromatids are pulled to opposite ends of cell
completion of Meiosis I
daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous chromosome pairing
both resulting cells look like this
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II and Cytokinesis
End Meiosis II
Two rounds of division
What is the total number of cells we get from one cell?
2n or 1n cells?
What are they used for?
Where in animals are they made?
cells will not grow in
between Meiosis I and II
Chromosomal Numbers
n = unique types of chromosomes
1 or 2 tells if haploid or diploid
example for humans
23 chromosomes
our cells are diploid
2(23) = 46 chromosomes

cells now 1n
meaning, only
one copy of each
type of
chromosome
otherwise, same
as before
chromosomes
line up at metaphase
plate
sister chromatids
are pulled to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle fibers
spindle fibers disappear
nuclei form
chromosomes will go back to
chromatin form
Upon the completion of
Meiosis II, cells:
are 1n, haploid
contain unduplicated
chromosomes
genetically recombined
crossing over in Meiosis I!
contributes to genetic
diversity
pg. 42- 43 and in HW
2n diploid
(two types: mitosis and meiosis)
the "organized" form of DNA
What to expect for Quiz 3
a chromosome with labels for one chromatid, sister chromatids and the centromere
homologous chromosomes
Be able to draw and explain the phases of mitosis and meiosis in animals and plant cells (draw with difference shapes!)
Be able to recognize ovaries and testes under the microscope.
Use homework, lecture sheet and Prezi
Be able to draw and label:
unduplicated
duplicated
Full transcript