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The Roman Empire: The First Century
Transcript of The Roman Empire: The First Century
- What did the Roman Emperors accomplish in the 1st Century? He was Rome's first emperor, because he turned it from a republic into an Empire. The government was corrupt and was no longer able to deal with pressing issues. He ended all sources of argument amongst Romans, and therefore brought the Pax Romana, which brought peace and prosperity to the vast majority of Romans. 31 BC - 14 AD - Antony saw himself as the political heir of Julius Caesar, but due to Julius Caesar's sudden assassination, Augustus was named as heir instead
- Augustus inherited Julius Caesar's legions, fame, and fortune and became rivals with Antony.
- Antony made an uneasy alliance with Augustus, and temporarily moved to Egypt with his lover Cleopatra. Reason of Conflict Who is Cleopatra? - Cleopatra was Antony's lover
- Cleopatra was the Queen of Egypt
- Egypt was one of the richest civilizations
existing at that time
- Being the Queen of Egypt and Antony's
lover posed a big threat towards
Augustus. - Antony was a Roman general
- Antony was Augustus's rival
- Antony posed a threat to Augustus
- Antony or Mark Antony was a relative
of Julius Caesar Reason of Conflict Who is Augustus? Conclusion - Augustus was the great nephew of Julius Caesar
- Augustus was Julius Caesar's heir
- Augustus was rivals with Mark Antony What did Augustus do? - After Julius Caesar assassinated, Augustus stood forward and went to Rome to claim his inheritance.
- Augustus tried to make friends with the two leaders of the Roman army: Mark Antony and Lepidus.
- Augustus challenged the two generals and they battled each another, Augustus won
- The empire was divided in three, Lepidus eventually dropped out as Augustus and Mark Antony were too powerful - As Augustus stood up and came to Rome to claim his inheritance.
- Posed a threat towards Mark Antony as Augustus was an unexpected rival
- Augustus was hungry for more power
- Cleopatra posed a great threat against Augustus and supported Mark Antony by supplying him with army supplies and weapons etc. - Augustus was named Emperor after defeating Mark Antony
- Augustus was successfully crowned as the 1st Emperor of Rome
- Reigned for 40 years and passed away because of a sudden illness in 14 AD
- Tiberius, Augustus's stepson was named heir. 14AD - 37AD - Tiberius was Augustus's stepson, Augustus's last choice as heir
- Was the opposite of Augustus, his step-father, had poor judgement skills
- First challenge: two armies threatened to march to Rome, sent his nephew Germanicus - Germanicus turned this dangerous situation into victory and was a hero - 19 AD Germanicus mysteriously died many blamed Tiberius - Tiberius was worried that this war hero might challenge his throne Some thought Germanicus had been poisoned What did Tiberius accomplish? 37 - 41AD Claudius 54 - 68AD Vespasian 69 - 79AD Titus & Domitan 79 - 96AD Nerva 96 - 98AD Did Emperor Tiberius assassinate his nephew Germanicus? Was Caligula Mad or BAD? - Tiberius had no sons of his own so Caligula was named heir
- Caligula is Germanicus's son
- Caligula started well, fell ill after being the emperor for seven months - Began acting strangely (eg. acting and possibly believing he is one
of the gods) - Caligula because extremely unpopular among the Romans murdered in 41AD What did Caligula accomplish? - Suceeded by his uncle, Claudius Trajan Lifestyle 98 - 117AD Galba, Ortho &
Vitellius 68 - 69AD - Claudius was Caligula's uncle
- Claudius was considered as a royal
laughing stock - limp, hearing problem
- Unexpected, Claudius was a success
but he had a poor taste in women Many believed Tiberius killed his nephew because he was jealous and was worried his nephew might challenge him. Tiberius had to secure his throne therefore killed him. - Claudius married his own niece, Agrippina
- Claudius named Agrippina's son from her previous marriage heir, then Agrippina poisoned Claudius
- Claudius was succeded by Nero http://0.tqn.com/d/ancienthistory/1/7/Y/L/2/Claudius.jpg Emperor What did Claudius accomplish? Senators Plebeians Claudius had the most impact on the Roman water system/aquaducts. He built more aquaducts and the aquaducts provided running water for public baths, the wealthy/Emperor and for general use. Slaves and Freedmen The First Century Equestrians Bibliography Main source: "The Roman Empire In The First Century." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. Other sources: "Augustus." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. "Why Did Augustus and Mark Antony Fight?" - Yahoo!7 Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013. - Mad tyrant
- Ordered guards to kill mother
- Mentally sick, mother's ghost haunted him
- Was announced by the Senate that he is a public enemy
- Murdered in 68 AD http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/Nero_1.JPG/768px-Nero_1.JPG - After Nero's death, the top generals throne was up for the grabs
- Top generals include: Galba, Ortho, Vitellius and Vespasian
- A year of terror for Rome as the four generals fought
- Vespasian won. - Built Colosseum to channel out anger from the public.
- Provided peace/stability to
the Roman empire since 20
- Did not live to see the Colosseum
- Two sons succeeded him http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/53/Colosseum_in_Rome,_Italy_-_April_2007.jpg/250px-Colosseum_in_Rome,_Italy_-_April_2007.jpg - Titus died after being emperor for two years
- Brother Domitan became emperor
- Domitan = Tyrant, proved himself as another Nero
- Murdered in 96AD by Senators - Titus succeded his father, Titus was successful and fair - Finished building his father's building project: Colosseum http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-HyNpnUdIbvQ/T0rLkwqpGlI/AAAAAAAAB3k/zS6Jn9MVUCc/s1600/Titus.jpg Rule was hereditary - sometime Romans stuck with tyrant or worse.
At end of period Romans took succession into own hands, because of bad emperors.
Empire started with force and violence.
If army was unhappy it could spread and emperor could be overthrown.
Rule was for life - only way to overthrow was to kill.
Many emperors suffered great losses
Was dangerous to be a politician - was easy to get assassinated. - Nerva became the Emperor immediately after Domitian was murdered
- Domitian made lots of empty promise
- Praetorian Guard asked the responsible party to be executed
- Nerva offered his life
- However they refused him but he was badly humiliated and died soon
afterward - Generals voted who should be the Emperor, Trajan won
- Trajan first non-Italian emperor
- Trajan extended the Empire to the extent
- Started a welfare society
- Trajan died in 117AD http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9d/Traianus_Glyptothek_Munich_336.jpg/220px-Traianus_Glyptothek_Munich_336.jpg Patricians - Lived in luxury - wealth & power.
- Involved in power struggles.
- Enjoyed leisure activities - music, poetry, hunting and horse racing.
- Constantly involved in political affairs - could succeed the throne.
- Had to keep tabs on fellow patricians to avoid betrayals and backstabbing.
- Patres means fathers in Latin.
- Provided Rome's political, religious, and military leadership.
- Most were landowners from old families, but could be promoted to the position.
- - Had much less power than patricians.
- Had power to confer the title of emperor.
- 600 members - after civil war Caesar changed it.
- Had to be over 25 and had to have military and administrative experience.
- Candidates chosen by emperor - elections formality.
- Only they could hold highest positions in offices and judging in criminal and civil courts.
- Had reserved seating at events and wore purple striped togas.
- Augustus proclaimed that senators couldn't be directly involved in business. No pay, so not many could afford to be involved in politics.
- Only advisory. - Originally composed of cavalry.
- Could become wealthy businessmen. Tax collectors, bankers, miners, etc.
- People of any social class could become equestrian - if they had 400,000 sesterces, in good health, good reputation.
- Thousands across empire.
- Did not need to be Italian.
- Could become senators.
Women - Working class.
- Had to be handled carefully, as were large in number and could revolt.
- Middle class - lowest class of free Romans.
- Had to work hard to provide for families.
- Could be supported by administrators.
- Most could not write, so don't know much about daily life.
- If saved enough money could join equestrian class.
- Provided with free grain and entertainment do would not revolt. - Wasn't based on race.
- Cruel and abusive.
- Could be prisoners of war, sailors captured and sold by pirates, or slaves bought outside Roman territory
- Romans could sell children into slavery.
- Owners could lash out or even kill them without consequence.
- Some people argued against abuse (e.g. Seneca).
- Worked in all sorts of places; mines, households, etc.
- Slaves could be freed - manumission.
- Freedmen became plebeians.
Looked so similar to citizens that Senate considered different clothes for slaves. Declined by Senate, as they thought if they saw how many other slave there were they would revolt. - Slaves in every class - however minorities in pretty much any class were in.
- Judged and defined by husands or fathers, had almost no say at all.
- Expected to be good wives and mothers.
- No place in politics, not taught to read or write.
- If any, basic education.
- By 1st century, had more freedom - could own land. Unless she married 'in manu'.
- Women who married 'sine manu' had a guardian.
- Later women with 3 children became independent. Freedwomen with 4 could, too.
- Few women had proper jobs.
- Female slaves had lots of jobs available - even being a gladiator.
- Wealthy widows were independent. Wealthy women could become priestesses.
- Wives or daughters of important men could influence, but have no true power.
- Middle and lower class were expected to carry out household duties.