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Chapter 3 - Neuroscience and Behavior

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Shelby Brown

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 3 - Neuroscience and Behavior

Central Nervous System Brain
Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Organs
Muscles Somatic Nervous System Voluntary movements
Skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary muscles
Organs, glands Sympathetic Nervous System Arousing (fight or flight)
Lungs (1), heart (2), liver (3), stomach (4), kidneys (5), bladder (6), sex organs (7) Parasympathetic Nervous System Calming
Lungs (1), heart (2), liver (3), stomach (4), kidneys (5), bladder (6), sex organs (7) Nervous System 2 (not shown) 1 3 4 5 6 7 opens airways increases heart rate inhibits digestion releases glucose secretes epinephrine (adrenaline)
& norepinephrine (noradrenaline) relaxes bladder ejaculation, orgasm constricts airways 1 (not shown) 2 3 4 5 7 decreases heart rate stimulates digestion stimulates gallbladder contracts bladder blood flow, erection Dendrites -
Receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body Cell body -
coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive Axon -
transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands Myelin sheath-
an insulating layer of fatty material. Speeds up signal transmission. { surrounds information flow Terminal button -
knoblike structure that branches out from an axon. Contains and releases neurotransmitters dendrite of next (post-synaptic) neuron { Synapse (Synaptic gap) - region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another Receptors -
Parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate a new electric signal. Acetylcholine (ACH) - Enables muscles action; regulates attention, learning memory, sleeping, and dreaming.

Dopamine - Influences movement, motivation, emotional pleasure, and arousal.

Glutamate - A major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory.

GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) - The primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Norepinephrine - Influences mood and arousal.

Serotonin - Regulates hunger, sleep, arousal, and aggressive behavior.

Endorphins - Act within pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain. Agonistic Actions (Increase the action of a neurotransmitter) Increase neurotransmitter production
Increase the release of neurotransmitters
Block receptors that would otherwise inhibit the neurotransmitters
Deactivate reuptake of neurotransmitters
Bind to postsynaptic receptors and activate them or increase their activation Antagonistic Actions (Block the action of a neurotransmitter) Decrease neurotransmitter production
Deplete neurotransmitter stores in vesicles
Block release of neurotransmitters
Inhibit release of neurotransmitters
Bind to postsynaptic receptors and block their activation by neurotransmitters Neurons Neurotransmitters Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites. Influenced by drugs through Types travel across bind to release types
of Sensory Neurons - Motor Neurons - Interneurons - Receive information from the world and convey to the brain via spinal cord Carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons Unipolar are often Bipolar are often Multipolar are often Pyramidal
(hippocampus) Purkinje
(cerebellum) Dorsal View Ventral View is composed of is composed of is composed of Neuron Firing operate through Sodium (Na+) ion channels are closed.
The inside of the membrane has a negative charge (-70 mV). This is the resting potential of a neuron. Electric charge generated by reception of neurotransmitters in the cell body causes Na+ channels to open. This allows more positive ions inside and begins to change the axon potential. After a threshold is reached, many Na+ channels open (depolarization). More Na+ inside the axon causes its charge to change from negative to positive, resulting in an action potential. The action potential peaks at about +40mV then begins to decline as potassium (K+) ion gates open and NA+ gates close. The difference in charge between the inside and outside of the membrane begins to increase (repolarization) During this refractory period it is impossible for the neuron to fire again. Besides being prevented from entering the cell, Na+ ions are also pumped out by chemical pumps in exchange for K+ ions. Finally, the inside of the membrane returns to its resting potential as the balance in ion charges is returned. The neuron is now ready to generate another action potential. The Brain are the cells of the Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain (AKA brain stem) Coordinates information coming into and out of spinal cord Coordinates orientation, movement, and arousal. Controls complex cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor functions. Cerebellum Latin for "little brain". Controls fine motor skills Reticular formation Regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal Medulla Coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respration Pons Relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain Tectum Orients an organism in the environment Tegmentum Involved in movement and arousal Cerebral cortex Outermost layer of the brain, divided into two hemispheres Thalamus Relays and filters information from the senses to the cortex Hypothalamus Regulates hunger, thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior Pituitary Gland The "Master gland" releases hormones and controls the release of hormones by other organs. Amygdala Plays central role in emotional processes such as experiencing fear and forming emotional memories Hippocampus Critical for creating new memories and integrating them into knowledge network of the cortex Basal Ganglia (not shown) A set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements Corpus callosum Connects the hemispheres and supports communication of information across them } Cortical Structures Subcortical Structures divided into Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Parietal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Functions include processing about touch Somatosensory cortex Areas represents specific skin areas of the body Movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment Motor cortex Areas represent and control specific skin and body areas Responsible for hearing and language Processes visual information contains the is composed of contains the see brain structures in manipulable 3D at http://www.zygotebody.com/ just type in the name of a brain area (e.g., "pituitary") in the search in the top right corner is an organ in the There are also https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1I7kr8ZP4PbhoNh9WlmREf912DZGbnfYEzmDsZIXogKE
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