Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Bi5 | Human Cloning

Bi5 Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy | 11 March 2015 | Instructor: Arni Gambe-Gilbuena | Song - "Ribs" by Lorde
by

Joseph Gil

on 18 March 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Bi5 | Human Cloning

Human Cloning
A Brief History of Cloning
1914
German embryologist, Hans Spemann conducted the first instance of nuclear transfer

1952

Thomas King and Robert Briggs performed the first successful nuclear transfer experiment following Spemann’s theories using tadpole embryo and enucleated frog egg.





Overview
History of Cloning
Science of Cloning
Ethics
Public Policy
Conclusion
Definitions
“to produce asexually”, “to make a genetic copy or set of copies of an organism” the “fusion or insertion of a diploid nucleus into an egg (oocyte)

Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy
Etymology



Clone is derived from the Greek
klon
, meaning “twig”
The
Science
of
Cloning

Types of Cloning
Gene cloning
Therapeutic cloning
Reproductive cloning
Gene Cloning
Therapeutic Cloning
Reproductive
or
Organismal Cloning
Techniques and
Methods
Applications
of
Cloning


Economic

cloning of
genetically modified organisms
(GMOs)such as the
Belgian Blue Cow

Medicine

therapeutic cloning
of one's organ,
we don't clone the entire person but one specific organ

Agricultural

cloning of bacteria and also desired
genes
in plants to increase crop productivity and health

Livestock

cloning of
desirable traits
in cows, sheep, pigs
• medical, therapeutic, commercial
Research on
cell differentiation
Potential applications in
organ and tissue transplantation
Potential applications in
cell-based therapies
Assisted
reproduction
Ethics
Objections
to Human Cloning
"Playing God" argument
The Threat
to Individuality
Bonnie Steinbeck on her essay "Cloning Human Beings: Sorting through Ethical Issues"
The Child's Right
to an
Open Future
Freewill
The Fear of Eugenics
Effects on Families and Family Relations
The Right
to have
Genetic Parents
Policy
Philippine Context
Sen. Pimentel statement on human cloning
- Sen Miriam Defensor Santiago
"Science is productive yet the state must interfere if it is abused."
Catholic Bishop's Conference of the Philippines' stand on Human Cloning
Causes the destruction of the nuclear family.
Against the laws of God
Against human rights

The United Nations on human cloning

Majority of nations have voted against the process


Against global security
Against human rights
Morally unsound
The prevalence of
Science Fiction
in media
Communication
between experts of the field
(scientists)
and the public
1958

John Gurdon discovered that nuclei from somatic cells could be used in cloning. He used intestinal frog cell from tadpoles and an enucleated frog egg for his experiment.

1984
Steen Willadsen cloned the first mammal. He modified Briggs and King's technique by adding the use of electrofusion.
1996
Ian Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, produced two live sheep,
Megan and Morag


23 February 1997

Wilmut announced Lamb 6LL3,
Dolly
the sheep, cloned from an adult somatic cell instead of an embryonic cell.
Blastomere Separation
Embryos in early stage development divide into cells called
blastomeres
Each blastomere is separated and starts to develop.

Hans Dreisch’s experiment in 1885 where he separated a 2-cell sea urchin embryo


Embryo Splitting
happens to
natural twins

artificial counterpart, the
embryo split
into two and transferred to a surrogate
zona pellucida
where it will grow and then will be transplanted to a surrogate mother’s womb
Experiment by Briggs and King in 1952 using tadpole embryo and enucleated tadpole egg

nucleus
from a
donor cell
is removed and
inserted into an enucleated egg

new cell develops and is
inserted into the womb
of a surrogate mother.



egg and sperm
from a
donor
undergo
in vitro fertilization
and form a zygote
cells from the
embryo
that is formed are taken and
inserted
into an enucleated egg
electric shock
is used to stimulate the new cell’s development
after some time, new cell is
transplanted
into the womb of a surrogate

Developed by the
Roslin team
: Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, and William Richie
Mammary gland cells

(udder cells)
from adult sheep were modified and grown in cultures so that it won’t easily divide
Nucleus from
udder cells
inserted into an enucleated egg
Electric shock
was used to fuse the nucleus into the cytoplasm and stimulate development
New cell transplanted into a surrogate.

Roslin Technique

Differentiated
(somatic)
cell
used as donor instead of an embryo cell
Removal
of the nucleus of the egg sends the cell into a dormant stage or back to
Gap Zero (G0)
phase
Nucleus from somatic cell taken and
transferred to an enucleated egg
Electric shock
used to activate the new cell to develop
New cell
implanted
into a surrogate mother’s womb

Tho Roslin Technique

Developed by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama
Cumulus cells
(instead of udder cells) used as the donor cells
Nucleus of cell taken and
inserted into an enucleated egg
New cell placed in a
chemical culture
to jump start cell development
transplanted
into surrogate mother.

The Honolulu Technique

Nuclear Transfer | Cell Fusion
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
Conclusion
follow Kyle Ta-ay @kaloyy
1997

Roslin Team introduced human Factor IX into the genome of cultured sheep skin cells and used the DNA from the said cells for embryonic nuclear transfer
The result was Polly
c
Honolulu Technique by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama introduced

2000
Cloning endangered | extinct species

2003

Clonaid company
announced to have cloned the first human, “Eve"

2013
Shoukhrat Mitalipov and colleagues able to grow a human embryo that could be a source of stem cells from a donated egg and fused with a patient’s skin cells

gene of interest is isolated and copied (cloned) out of DNA extracted from an organism
designed as therapy for a disease
the creation of an organism genetically identical to a donor organism through somatic cell nuclear transfer
What is Cloning?
Why the controversy?
Why is ethics so intertwined when discussing human cloning?
Should it be banned?
Not so Fun Fact
Dolly the sheep
was one success out of 277 tries
every medical intervention
"Every new technology is imperfect." -
Robert Pollack
"
Any new technology can be used in wrongful ways."
"There will never be another you."
- Philip Kitcher
"Cloning does not create an exact replica of an adult."


The Fallacy of Biological Determinism
"warning against excess or
hubris...
that we may overlook its potential dangers"
"It's how we would use it."

we are not our genes.
Should human cloning be banned?
Until we have much more extensive and detailed knowledge of how cloning can be achieved (and what the potential problems are) there is no warrant for human cloning. Appropriate circumstances and alternative techniques.
Clones are not identical.
different cytoplasmic constitutions
not common uterine environment
environment after birth
One more thing.
"Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?"

-
Euthyphro dilemma
, Socrates, Euthyphro

that would give it meaning to humanity.
"Human cloning should not be a means to live forever."
- George E. Seidel Jr.
Every individual is unique.
- George E. Seidel Jr.
humanness.
a response to the unfamiliar
Leon Kass in his
Wisdom of Repugnance
"one more example of how we have been led astray by technology"
It reflects our narcissism...
Fin.
Group 3
-
Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy
Bi5 2014-2015 ADMU
Gil
Gomez
Lintag
Ta-ay
Full transcript