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Bi5 | Human Cloning

Bi5 Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy | 11 March 2015 | Instructor: Arni Gambe-Gilbuena | Song - "Ribs" by Lorde

Joseph Gil

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Bi5 | Human Cloning

Human Cloning
A Brief History of Cloning
German embryologist, Hans Spemann conducted the first instance of nuclear transfer


Thomas King and Robert Briggs performed the first successful nuclear transfer experiment following Spemann’s theories using tadpole embryo and enucleated frog egg.

History of Cloning
Science of Cloning
Public Policy
“to produce asexually”, “to make a genetic copy or set of copies of an organism” the “fusion or insertion of a diploid nucleus into an egg (oocyte)

Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy

Clone is derived from the Greek
, meaning “twig”

Types of Cloning
Gene cloning
Therapeutic cloning
Reproductive cloning
Gene Cloning
Therapeutic Cloning
Organismal Cloning
Techniques and


cloning of
genetically modified organisms
(GMOs)such as the
Belgian Blue Cow


therapeutic cloning
of one's organ,
we don't clone the entire person but one specific organ


cloning of bacteria and also desired
in plants to increase crop productivity and health


cloning of
desirable traits
in cows, sheep, pigs
• medical, therapeutic, commercial
Research on
cell differentiation
Potential applications in
organ and tissue transplantation
Potential applications in
cell-based therapies
to Human Cloning
"Playing God" argument
The Threat
to Individuality
Bonnie Steinbeck on her essay "Cloning Human Beings: Sorting through Ethical Issues"
The Child's Right
to an
Open Future
The Fear of Eugenics
Effects on Families and Family Relations
The Right
to have
Genetic Parents
Philippine Context
Sen. Pimentel statement on human cloning
- Sen Miriam Defensor Santiago
"Science is productive yet the state must interfere if it is abused."
Catholic Bishop's Conference of the Philippines' stand on Human Cloning
Causes the destruction of the nuclear family.
Against the laws of God
Against human rights

The United Nations on human cloning

Majority of nations have voted against the process

Against global security
Against human rights
Morally unsound
The prevalence of
Science Fiction
in media
between experts of the field
and the public

John Gurdon discovered that nuclei from somatic cells could be used in cloning. He used intestinal frog cell from tadpoles and an enucleated frog egg for his experiment.

Steen Willadsen cloned the first mammal. He modified Briggs and King's technique by adding the use of electrofusion.
Ian Wilmut and his team at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, produced two live sheep,
Megan and Morag

23 February 1997

Wilmut announced Lamb 6LL3,
the sheep, cloned from an adult somatic cell instead of an embryonic cell.
Blastomere Separation
Embryos in early stage development divide into cells called
Each blastomere is separated and starts to develop.

Hans Dreisch’s experiment in 1885 where he separated a 2-cell sea urchin embryo

Embryo Splitting
happens to
natural twins

artificial counterpart, the
embryo split
into two and transferred to a surrogate
zona pellucida
where it will grow and then will be transplanted to a surrogate mother’s womb
Experiment by Briggs and King in 1952 using tadpole embryo and enucleated tadpole egg

from a
donor cell
is removed and
inserted into an enucleated egg

new cell develops and is
inserted into the womb
of a surrogate mother.

egg and sperm
from a
in vitro fertilization
and form a zygote
cells from the
that is formed are taken and
into an enucleated egg
electric shock
is used to stimulate the new cell’s development
after some time, new cell is
into the womb of a surrogate

Developed by the
Roslin team
: Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, and William Richie
Mammary gland cells

(udder cells)
from adult sheep were modified and grown in cultures so that it won’t easily divide
Nucleus from
udder cells
inserted into an enucleated egg
Electric shock
was used to fuse the nucleus into the cytoplasm and stimulate development
New cell transplanted into a surrogate.

Roslin Technique

used as donor instead of an embryo cell
of the nucleus of the egg sends the cell into a dormant stage or back to
Gap Zero (G0)
Nucleus from somatic cell taken and
transferred to an enucleated egg
Electric shock
used to activate the new cell to develop
New cell
into a surrogate mother’s womb

Tho Roslin Technique

Developed by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama
Cumulus cells
(instead of udder cells) used as the donor cells
Nucleus of cell taken and
inserted into an enucleated egg
New cell placed in a
chemical culture
to jump start cell development
into surrogate mother.

The Honolulu Technique

Nuclear Transfer | Cell Fusion
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
follow Kyle Ta-ay @kaloyy

Roslin Team introduced human Factor IX into the genome of cultured sheep skin cells and used the DNA from the said cells for embryonic nuclear transfer
The result was Polly
Honolulu Technique by Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry and Teruhiko Wakayama introduced

Cloning endangered | extinct species


Clonaid company
announced to have cloned the first human, “Eve"

Shoukhrat Mitalipov and colleagues able to grow a human embryo that could be a source of stem cells from a donated egg and fused with a patient’s skin cells

gene of interest is isolated and copied (cloned) out of DNA extracted from an organism
designed as therapy for a disease
the creation of an organism genetically identical to a donor organism through somatic cell nuclear transfer
What is Cloning?
Why the controversy?
Why is ethics so intertwined when discussing human cloning?
Should it be banned?
Not so Fun Fact
Dolly the sheep
was one success out of 277 tries
every medical intervention
"Every new technology is imperfect." -
Robert Pollack
Any new technology can be used in wrongful ways."
"There will never be another you."
- Philip Kitcher
"Cloning does not create an exact replica of an adult."

The Fallacy of Biological Determinism
"warning against excess or
that we may overlook its potential dangers"
"It's how we would use it."

we are not our genes.
Should human cloning be banned?
Until we have much more extensive and detailed knowledge of how cloning can be achieved (and what the potential problems are) there is no warrant for human cloning. Appropriate circumstances and alternative techniques.
Clones are not identical.
different cytoplasmic constitutions
not common uterine environment
environment after birth
One more thing.
"Is what is morally good commanded by God because it is morally good, or is it morally good because it is commanded by God?"

Euthyphro dilemma
, Socrates, Euthyphro

that would give it meaning to humanity.
"Human cloning should not be a means to live forever."
- George E. Seidel Jr.
Every individual is unique.
- George E. Seidel Jr.
a response to the unfamiliar
Leon Kass in his
Wisdom of Repugnance
"one more example of how we have been led astray by technology"
It reflects our narcissism...
Group 3
Human Cloning: History, Science, Ethics & Policy
Bi5 2014-2015 ADMU
Full transcript