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Historical Foundations of Professional Nursing

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Josuel Vasallo

on 20 January 2014

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Transcript of Historical Foundations of Professional Nursing

Historical Foundations of Professional Nursing
Chapter 3
Historical Foundations of Professional Nursing
Chapter 3

Transition to Professional Nursing
Reference # 780097
Professor: Doctor Folorunso Ibraheem

Milene Quijano
Josuel Vasallo

Learn the historical development of nursing from ancient times to present.
Discuss the role of religion and war on the development of nursing.
Describe contribution of selected nurses to the nursing profession and society.
Discuss the development of professional nursing organization and their roles.
Primitive Society
Traditional female role.
Female role of wife, daughter and sister in caring for other family members.
The word "nurse", comes from the care that mothers gave to their helpless infant children.
Religion in Nursing Development
Christian value significantly influenced the Western Nursing.
Good Samaritan
Parabolani Brotherhood- cared for sick and dying people.
Knighthoods- cared for sick and injured comrades
Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem
Teutonic Knights
Knights of Lazarus
Other institutions supported by the church
Orphans, widows, elderly, poor and sick people
Other Groups
Military and secular orders
Islamic women (Rufida- First nurse in Islam. Set down the first code of nursing rules and ethics in the world.)
Sister of charity (French)- cared for the sick.
Deaconess groups:
Marcella-Palace to Monastery
Fabiolla- Established first public hospital in Rome.
Paula- Move to Palestine and built a hospital.
Modern Nursing
In the 19th Century, nursing had little acceptance and no prestige. (Prostitutes and Prisoners)
Deaconess Institute at Kaiserwerth, Germany
Training School
Recognized the need of the service of women in caring for the sick.
Spread to four continents (Africa, America, Australia and Asia)
Ancient Civilization
Mid wife (childbirth), wet nurses (slaves)

Wizards, witches, priests:
Believed that diseases and cures came from superstition and magic.
Babylonian 1900 BC
(Code of Hammurabi)
Regulation of public health.
Illustration of nurse like assisting physician.
Difference between human and veterinary medicine.
Task and practice provided by nurses.
Penalties for violating the code.
Egyptian culture
Ebers papyrus oldest medical text, 1550 B.C.
Describes many diseases known today and symptomatology .
Mummification or embalming.
700 substances used as drugs.
Mosaic Health Code (considered the first sanitary legislation)
Difference between clean and unclean.
Childbearing, menstruation.
Diet and preparation of food.
Quarantines and leprosy.
Wet nurses
Med Nurses
Knowledgeable of drugs
Devoted to patients
Purity of mind and body
Herbal remedies
(Examination, listen, ask and feel)
Hippocrates (Father of medicine)
Diseases have a natural cause
Public Sanitation
Public and private baths
drainage systems
Florence Nightingale
Former student of Keiserwerth Institute
Asked to serve in Crimean War.
Transformed the environment (reduced in 6 months the mortality rate from 43% - 2%).
Used the honorarium to develop the Nightingale Training School for Nurses in England.
The status of nursing was changed to a prestigious and respectful occupation for women.
Civil War
Dorothea Dix:
Recruited 2,000 women, many died as a result of disease.
Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth:
Took care of African Americans
Clara Barton:
Post civil war, helped in founding the American Red Cross in 1882.
Army School of Nursing was created by Annie Goodrich.
Vassar training camp combined university and hospital by Isabel Stuart.
Nurses served from field, ships, and air ambulances.
United State Cadet Nurses Corp.- Training program for nurses.
Historical Leaders in Nursing
The Founders
Jeanne Mance
Florence Nightingale
Mary Seacole
Lucy Osborne
Linda (Melinda) Richards
John Ciudad
St. Camillus de Lellis
James Derham
Walt Whitman
Luther Christman
Richard Henry Carmona
Clara Maass - Mosquito bite
Edith Cavell - Shot by Germans
Sharon Lane - Died in a crossfire
Barbara Fassbinder - First care provider to acquire AIDS.
Social Reformers
Sojourner Truth - Abolitionist
Dorothea Lynde Dix - Advocate for prisoners.
Harriet Tubman- Assisted slaves
Lavinia Dock- Women rights
Margaret Sanger - Family planner (contraception)
Mary Elizabeth Carnegie - First African American on the Board of FL Nurses Association.
Mabel Staupers - Racial equality
Clara Barton
Mary Mahoney
Ceclia Makiwane
Lillian Wald
Mary Breckinridge
Loretta C. Ford
Nursing in America
1903: Only 4 states enacted voluntary licensure laws.
1923: All 48 states had nursing licensure laws or registration.
1935: Mandatory licensure act passed in NY and was effected in 1949.
1992: Eddie Bernice Johnson was the first nurse to be elected to the US House of Representatives.
Development of Professional Nursing Organization
Organization that represents all nurses. (ANA, National League of Nurses)
Organization that meets the needs of specific Nursing specialties. (American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, Emergency Nurse Association, Association of periOperative Registered Nurse)
Organization that represents special interest. (National Black Nurses Association, National Association of Hispanic Nurses)
American Nurses Association (ANA)
Represents all RNs in the US.
In 1911 - changed name from Nursing Association Alumni to ANA.
1982- became federation of the state nurses association.
Promotes high standards of nursing, rights for nurses in the workplace, project positive view and lobby Congress on healthcare issues.
Other Professional Nurses Associations
National Student Nurses' Association (NSNA)
National League of Nursing (NLN)
American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN)
Canadian Nurses Association
International Council of Nurses (ICN)
Sigma Theta Tau International
Which of these cultures used about 700 substances as drugs?
A. Babylon
B. Greece
C. Rome
D. Egypt
Which of these cultures developed public sanitation such as aqueducts?
A. Greece
B. Asia
C. Rome
D. India
Which of these nurses was a pupil of Keiserwerth?
A. Dorothea Dix
B. Harriet Tubman
C. Clara Borton
D. Florence Nightingale
ANA is an organization that...
A. Represents all Nurses
B. Represents special interests
C. Represents specific nurses specialties
D. All of the above
The Christian values influenced in Western Nursing.
A. True
B. False
Blais, K.K., & Hayes, J.S. (2011). Professional
nursing practice. (6th ed.,pp.33-47). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
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