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Copy of Describe and explain four psychological factors that are imp

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kennedidi Ibrahim

on 2 December 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Describe and explain four psychological factors that are imp

Describe and explain four psychological factors that are important in the leading of sports activities.
Personality
Motivation
Stress
Cohesion
The term cohesiveness has long been associated with the amount of ‘togetherness’ displayed by a team both on and off the field. Team cohesion is commonly defined as a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives.
There are two dimensions within cohesion:

A task dimension which reflects a team’s ability to work together to achieve a goal, and
A social dimension which reflects the degree to which team members like each others’ company.
Performance success will facilitate feelings of greater cohesion and satisfaction. Similarly, cohesion itself will also result in a greater sense of satisfaction.

Satisfaction is how an individual feels about their participation in a team. If an individual has a high degree of satisfaction they are more likely to feel good about themselves and their participation and want to continue participating.
tuckman's model of group development
Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached. At this point the team may produce a successor leader and the previous leader can move on to develop a new team.
Here are the features of each phase:

forming - stage 1

High dependence on leader for guidance and direction. Little agreement on team aims other than received from leader. Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear. Leader must be prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. Processes are often ignored. Members test tolerance of system and leader. Leader directs (similar to Situational Leadership® 'Telling' mode).

storming - stage 2

Decisions don't come easily within group. Team members vie for position as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the leader, who might receive challenges from team members. Clarity of purpose increases but plenty of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there may be power struggles. The team needs to be focused on its goals to avoid becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. Compromises may be required to enable progress. Leader coaches (similar to Situational Leadership® 'Selling' mode).

norming - stage 3

Agreement and consensus largely forms among the team, who respond well to facilitation by leader. Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted. Big decisions are made by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Commitment and unity is strong. The team may engage in fun and social activities. The team discusses and develops its processes and working style. There is general respect for the leader and some of leadership is more shared by the team. Leader facilitates and enables (similar to the Situational Leadership® 'Participating' mode).

performing - stage 4

The team is more strategically aware; the team knows clearly why it is doing what it is doing. The team has a shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from the leader. There is a focus on over-achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. The team has a high degree of autonomy. Disagreements occur but now they are resolved within the team positively, and necessary changes to processes and structure are made by the team. The team is able to work towards achieving the goal, and also to attend to relationship, style and process issues along the way. Team members look after each other. The team requires delegated tasks and projects from the leader. The team does not need to be instructed or assisted. Team members might ask for assistance from the leader with personal and interpersonal development. Leader delegates and oversees
social loafing
this theory is the phenomenon of people putting in less effort to achieve their ultimate goal or their short term which could be to win a match. this theory is split into two aspects which are the free-rider effect and the sucker effect. firstly the free rider effect stands for some people who don't do their share of the task hoping that the efforts exerted by others will cover their shortcomings. secondly, the sucker effect is the response of those who were working hard and they respond by lowering their efforts. these are the consequences sometimes found within team sports.

Ringlemann effect
This theory is one that results within team sports. The way it reacts is players within the group who as the team increases in size they decrease their effort levels. This effect was discovered by french agricultural engineer, Maximilien Ringlemann (1861-1931). This shows the effect link that happens to exist within the size of a team and the extent of the members' specific contribution to the achieving of the ultimate goal.
The combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character.
Personality type A and B
Another approach in sport psychology suggests that
personality traits can be grouped under two headings:
type A and type B.

People with a type A personality tend to lack
patience, have a strong urge for competition, a high
desire to achieve goals, always rush to complete
activities, will happily multi-task when placed under
time constraints, lack tolerance towards others and
experience higher levels of anxiety.

Type B personalities tend to be more tolerant
towards others, more relaxed and reflective than
their type A counterparts, experience lower levels
of anxiety and display higher levels of imagination
and creativity
Social learning theory
Social learning theory
Social learning theory states that the topic personality is a variable aspect within the human beings depending on the different social situations the person experiences. having said that, people will behave differently when they are different situations. This theory states that people learn in sporting situations within two processes known as modeling and reinforcement. To start off with, modeling says that people are likely to prototype themselves on successful people they can relate to or they look up to. Furthermore, reinforcement is seen as the reward given to a person in regards of his behaviour and this is crucial as it will make that person persist with that behaviour and he/she will repeat it.

Confidence
Confidence is a key psychological aspect to sports performance and something athletes require in order to perform ti the best of their ability.When athletes feel confident, they are able to easily go from players with high potential to top class performers.The opposite aspect to this can be said to be unsureness about your ability. This can make a player with a unique potential seem like an average player. Costas Karageorghis has explored the origin of confidence and states that self-confidence the fact that a person is sure about his ability and he believes that he is capable of undertaking the task in hand. however, a high level confidence at its extremist can be said to be over-confidence and when a person is in that state it could sometimes be negative as within a team this person could be either not working as well as the team members or he would do more than that which is asked from him.
profile of mood states
The Profile of Mood States is a psychological testing procedure put in place to test and analyze varying mood states. .
This is a test put together in order to assess and measure the psychological traits of an athlete and as a result compare to a non-athlete and try to workout the differences.. Six mood states are used in POMS:

• tension
• depression
• anger
• vigour
• fatigue
• confusion.


The paper began by reviewing the studies by Nagle, Morgan, Hellichn, serfass, and Alexander (1975). Morgan and Pollock (1977), and Morgan and Johnson (1978). These studies adverted and encouraged the POMS in sport. This was put into place in order to assess and athlete's mental state which would be in relation to the social situation he is within. Specifically, these studies hypothesized that successful athletes would possess more positive emotional and mental health than unsuccessful athletes.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10413209308411306#.UpNpBtK-3Tp
Most definitions of motivation refer to having a drive
to take part and to persist in an activity. A sport-specific
definition is the tendency of an individual or team to
begin and then carry on with the activities relating to
their sport. There are two main types of motivation:
intrinsic and extrinsic.
Extrinsic
Extrinsic motivation is when someone behaves the way
they do because of some form of external mechanism.
The most common forms of extrinsic motivation come
through the use of tangible and intangible rewards.
Tangible rewards are things that can physically be
given to you, like money, medals and trophies,
intangible rewards are non-physical things such as
praise or encouragement.
For extrinsic motivation to be effective, rewards
need to be used effectively. If the reward is given too
frequently, it will be of little value to the athlete after
a period of time, invalidating its potential impact on
performance. A
Intrinsic
Intrinsic motivation is when someone is participating
in an activity without an external reward and/or
without the primary motivation being the achievement
of some form of external reward. Intrinsic motivation
in its purest form is when an athlete participates in a
sport for enjoyment. When people are asked why they
play sport, if they reply with ‘for fun’, or ‘because it
makes me feel good’ (or similar responses), they can
be said to be intrinsically motivated.
There are three parts of intrinsic motivation:
• motivated by accomplishments – this occurs when
athletes wish to increase their level of skill to get a
sense of accomplishment
motivated by stimulation – this refers to seeking an
‘adrenaline rush’ or extreme excitement
• motivated by knowledge – this means being
curious about your own performance, wanting to
know more about it and having a desire to develop
new techniques or skills to benefit performance.
A state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.
Arousal
Arousal is known and related to as mental position which is set to alert the body and gets it ready for action. It is regarded as a psychological aspect which is nor positive nor negative hence why it is considered to be neutral. it has a physiological response which is sweating, increased heart as well as increased respiratory rate. adding to that, it also has a psychological response which is increased attention.
People who are aroused are those who are psychologically and physically ready to take part in activities or competitive sports.

Inverted U Theory
The inverted U hypothesis states that at optimal arousal
levels, performance levels will be at their highest, but
when arousal is either too low or too high, performance
levels will be lower. It argues that at lower levels of
arousal, performance will not be as high as it should
be because the athlete is neither physiologically nor
psychologically ready (e.g. heart rate and concentration
levels may be too low). As arousal levels increase, so
does performance, but only up to an optimal point.
At this optimal point of arousal (normally moderate
levels of arousal), the athlete’s performance will be at its
highest. After this optimal point performance levels will
start to decrease gradually.
Anxiety
Anxiety is a negative emotional state that is either
characterized by, or associated with, feelings of
nervousness, apprehension or worry. There are a
number of causes of anxiety.
Anxiety can adversely affect sports performance. It is
seen as a negative mental state that is the negative
aspect of stress. In skills that require a great deal of
concentration such as golf putting and potting a ball
in snooker, anxiety can lead to lower performance
levels due to reduced concentration, attention levels,
and co-ordination faults.
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