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American Revolution Stages
Transcript of American Revolution Stages
2. Riots, assassinations, acts of violence.
3. Transfer of power.
4. Counter-Revolutionary attempts.
5. Attempts by revolutionaries to realize their utopian dreams.
6. Drift toward normalcy (Thermidorian Reaction) 1750 1800 1850 1775 1765 1774 Heavy debt in Britain based on the lengthy Seven Years War
Pay for the war and the administration of the larger British Empire, Parliament levied new taxes (partial list)
Stamp Act of 1765
Townshend Act of 1767
Tea Act of 1773
Coercive Acts of 1774 1773 Colonists created organized resistance like the Boston Tea party, British and American colonists clashed on Boston Commons in the Boston Massacre, and groups formed to promote violence like the Sons of Liberty.
The Boston Tea party started on December 16, 1773 when the Sons of Liberty sponsored a march in protest of the tea tax. The Boston Massacre is one of many events that inflamed the colonists. It took place on March 5, 1770 and was a British Sentry was supported by eight additional soldiers, who were subjected to verbal threats and thrown objects. They fired into the crowd, without orders, instantly killing three people and wounding others. Two more people died later of wounds sustained in the incident. 1770 The Sons of Liberty was a group consisting of American patriots that originated in the pre-independence North American British colonies. The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to take to the streets against the taxes by the British government. They are best known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773, which led to the Intolerable Acts (an intense crackdown by the British government), and a counter-mobilization by the Patriots. 1776 The Declaration of Independence document's opening statement asserted Locke's fundamental principles. First, it declared the equality of all men. Second, it outlined the inalienable, or natural, rights of all men. Third, it stressed the Lockean view that people may, and in fact should, withdraw their consent from an unjust government.
Jefferson, however, melded Locke's views of natural rights with those of another influential philosopher, Emerich de Vattel. De Vattel emphasized the pursuit of happiness, which he defined as civic duty, over the right to property.
Jefferson also outlined King George's injustices for two reasons. First, he believed that only consistently unjust policies constituted the tyranny that warranted rebellion. Second, he wanted to focus colonists’ rebellion on a real "enemy," the king with whom they had made their government contract. Loyalists, or Tories, were scattered about the colonies and faced constant harassment from patriot groups. In fact, Great Britain mistakenly assumed more support from Loyalists than ever really materialized. In addition, it had never faced a foe composed of people up in arms—a powerful enemy. Patriot supporters fought for various reasons. Some believed in liberty. Others wanted the free land promised as payment. For the African Americans who fought—some 5,000 of them—freedom from slavery was sometimes an incentive. While few women took up arms, female patriots helped feed and clothe the armies, maintained farms and businesses, and conveyed their views through protests and boycotts. Fighting for a higher ideal lent passion to the patriot cause and helped America defeat a vastly superior army.
Thus, although Washington commanded forces that were ill equipped and relatively untrained, he did have access to a large pool of fresh soldiers. In addition, he eventually built the Continentals into a successful fighting force. He used his army's advantages—daring adventurousness, patriotic commitment, flexibility in battle strategy, guerrilla tactics, frontier marksmanship, and more—to resist the British, capitalize on their weaknesses, and ultimately seized the day. Memorialized in this famous painting by Emanuel Leutze, George Washington crosses the Delaware River to attack the British in Trenton, New Jersey in December 1776. One of the oarsmen shown battling the massive chunks of ice is an African American believed to be Prince Whipple, a slave who was emancipated during the war and a bodyguard to Gen. William Whipple, an aide to George Washington The first “constitutional” document written by the colonial revolutionaries. This is the First page of the Articles of Confederation. The Second Continental Congress began the challenge of forming a functioning government, and after a year of struggle and disagreements the Articles of Confederation were adopted in 1781. The articles provided a limited central government that proved ineffective, leading to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. 1781 1787 1791 The creation of the United States of America under the Constitution and using enlightenment principles (i.e. separation of powers) was very controversial.
The final polish on the Constitution was made by Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was signed by 39 of the 42 delegates who remained. Delegates provided that the new Constitution would go into effect when ratified by conventions in nine of the states. It was ratified two years later on June 21, 1788 with the promise of the adoption of the Bill of Rights (ratified December 15, 1791.) STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 4 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 2 STAGE 5 STAGE 2 STAGE 6