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Copy of Chapter 13 Language and Identity

Bonny Norton
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Lala Hsing

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Chapter 13 Language and Identity

Language & Identity 353 identity sociocultural
context Language
use We Surveyed 100
People SPEECH
&
SELF learners’ identities may impact learning processes engagements with literacy add resistance to undesirable or
uncomfortable educational setting Language, Discourse & Identity Why Structuralists Post-Structuralists have idealized meanings A one week old example... Julia Gillard ? Postructuralists A linguistic system guarantees the meaning of signs (the word and its meaning).

Each linguistic community has its own signifying practices that give value to the signs in a language. Structuralists & theory: Bakhtin (1981, 1984) Bourdieu (1977, 1991) Hall (1997) Weedon (1997) Ferdinand de Saussure (1966) Structuralism cannot account for struggles over social meanings attributed to signs in a language. homogenous are sites of struggle conflicting claims to truth and power Signs linguistic communities consensual heterogenous Peter Slipper Tony Abbot ‘ditch the witch’ ‘bitch’ "The leader of the opposition says that people who hold sexist views and who are misogynists are not appropriate for high office...
I will not be lectured about sexism and misogyny by this man. And the government will not be lectured about sexism and misogyny by this man. Not now, not ever." Criticized for misusing the word misogyny. imply "entrenched prejudice against women" as well as, or instead of, pathological hatred of them. Every time we speak, we are negotiating and renegotiating our sense of self in relation to the larger social world, and reorganizing that relationship across time and space. Our gender, race, class, ethnicity, sexual orientation, among other characteristics, are all implicated in this negotiation of identity. Bourdieu (1977) Weedon (1997) identity is to of subject [set of relationships] [set of relationships] position of power (empowered) leader, governor, parent, boss, ceo, head of household reduced position of power student, soldier, child, worker The real me is a fiction social construct sexual orientation gender race class ethnicity nationality age changes over time subjectivity as a site of struggle as the result of transformational education What does this mean for teachers? Each identity position may + - opportunities for learners to speak, read or write, limit and constrain enhanced sets of possibilities gender, class, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation gains access to denied access to + - POWERFUL SOCIAL NETWORKS social interaction and human
agency יום העצמאות Heterogeneous society example language as a site of struggle Roles of Lanuage Learning Ibrahim (1999) Cameron (2006) Pavlenko (2004) Sunderland (2004) Higgins (200?) Taylor (2004) "Becoming Black" a result of hegemonic processes Hue and Khatra Gender and Language oral multimodal written INSERT MY QUOTES Language is more than just a linguistic system.
It is a "social practice in which experiences
are organized and identities negotiated."
(Norton 2010) Roles of Language Identity Mind Languages (Khatib 2011) I believe it is important to retain our Native languages. Surveyed 100 people…….. I feel more comfortable participating in class when teachers embrace my culture and identity I thoroughly enjoy learning English and attending English courses (in high school, ESL etc).


I believe that most English learning courses are taught through an assimilation model (English only, not allowed to speak native language or bring in other cultural aspects). I believe languages are closely related to identity and expression of who we are The Effect of Identity on Language Learners LANGUAGE AND
GENDER IDENTITY What do scholars think about language and gender? What do scholars think about language and gender? Lakoff (1975) Tannen (1990) Judith Butler (1990) gender is
a stylized performance Language Learners and Gender 1
(assimilation) - L2 gendered subject positions more favorable (Pavlenko 2001)

- English as a "weapon for self-empowerment"
and new voice (McMahill 2001) Language Learners and Gender 2
(resistance) Learning second language threatens L1 gender identity L1 to L2 gender identity (shifting) English learners do not just
abandon L1 & take up L2 gender identity
or
hold onto L1 and reject L2 gender identity

Gender identity is fluid.

Thus, they may SHIFT BETWEEN gendered subjectivities and find themselves BETWEEN WORLDS Topics for
Gender and Language in the Classroom






1. Do you associate the English language with "freer" expression of gender identity? If yes, how is your gender identity expressed differently in the English language from your native (L1) language?

2. Do you think learning the English language gave you new perspectives on gender, sex, and sexuality? If yes, what perspectives specifically? (e.g. are you now more open to LGBTQ? More open to exploring new possibilities for gender identities? )

3. What is the most powerful English medium that influences your concept of gender identity? (e.g. English T.V.? Literature available only in English about different gender identities? English blogs? Other media?)

4. How has your dual identity affected your English learning process.

5. Was it easy balancing your dual identities? Pedagogical applications 1. Allow greater expressive choices

2. Use gender discourse as a topic for exploration

3. Raise intercultural awareness

4. Address gender stereotypes

5. Bring a global perspective on gender TEACHERS can "My Heart is Where I am"- Somalian Immigrants

"I am not denying myself, I am being myself"

"My heart is here, my heart is in Somalia. Home is where the heart is, my heart is where I am"

At school we feel British, at home we have our own Somalian culture, food, and language; This makes me stand out as my own I believe it is important to retain our native languages. learners’ identities may impact learning processes engagements with literacy add resistance to undesirable or
uncomfortable educational setting What does this mean for teachers? Each identity position may opportunities for learners to speak, read or write, limit and constrain enhanced sets of possibilities gender, class, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation gains access to denied access to social interaction and human
agency Ibrahim (1999) Cameron (2006) Pavlenko (2004) Sunderland (2004) Higgins (200?) Taylor (2004) "Becoming Black" Particular relations of race, gender, class, and sexual orientation may impact the language learning process a result of hegemonic processes Gender and Language Hue and Khatra sexual orientation gender race class ethnicity nationality age changes over time learners’ identities may impact learning processes engagements with literacy add resistance to undesirable or
uncomfortable educational setting offer learners multiple identity positions provide learners with diverse opportunities to take ownership of meaning-making Make the desirable possible! patriarchy Hypothesis:
Men and women speak
differently because of their sex. female vs. male
subcultures Gender stereotypes
LGBTQ
Media representation of gender
Sexist language Ideas for Teaching 1:
Formal Instruction -Rejects life style of L2 speakers (Skapoulli 2004)

- Refuse to use Japanese honorifics (Siegal 1996) Ideas for Teaching 2:
Analyze Media Representation Gender Representation in a Disney Film Learning second language enhances L2 gender identity. Ideas for Teaching 3:
Discuss Global Cultural Perspectives on Gender How we talk and what we say is an important part of how we define and
express the different sides of "us" Language learners are not passive, they have
agency (Andersson and Andersson 1999)

Language learners resist by creating “pedagogical safe houses”

Good for teachers to re-conceptualize students' resistance more productively as a meaning making activity (Mckinney and van Pletzen 2004) The Effect of Identity on Language Learners Learners with positive attitudes towards their own ethnic identity and towards target culture will most likely develop a strong motivation of L2 acquisition, while also maintaining L1 (Khatib 2011)

In China, learning English is considered a valuable non threatening skill; general motivation to learn the language (Khatib 2011) They use both their L1 and L2 to express their evolving identity; their gender, ethnicity, and self identification

Language and identity cannot be separated from culture, it is a "social practice in which experiences are organized and identities negotiated." (Norton 2010) References Higgins, Christina. (2010). Gender Identities in Language Education. In Nancy H.
Hornberger and Sandra Lee McKay, Sociolinguistics and Language
Education (pp. 370-369). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Norton, Bonny. (2010). Language and Identity. In Nancy H. Hornberger and Sandra Lee McKay, Sociolinguistics and Language Education (pp. 349-369).
Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Pavlenko, Aneta. (2001). Multilingualism, Second Language Learning, And
Gender. Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=iLhtuqFOBk0C&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=gender+identity+and+language+learning&ots=A0hnhDyKZ-&sig=iFerdaOyZVUxTYWfm8Cto7c1sDM#v=onepage&q=gender%20identity%20and%20language%20learning&f=true
Reyes, Angela. (2010). Language and Ethnicity. In Nancy H. Hornberger and
Sandra Lee McKay, Sociolinguistics and Language Education (pp. 398-
426). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Khatib, Mohammad, & Ghamari, Mohammad Reza (2011). Theory and Practice in Language Studies. Mutual Relations of Identity and Foreign Language Learning: An overview of Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Approach to Identity. Theory and Practice in Language Studies (pp. 1701-1708). Finland: Academy Publisher.
Language and Identity” by Mary Bucholtz and Kira Hall, Chapter 16 in Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. ETHNICITY Ethnicity is a social construction that indicates identification with a particular group which is often descended from common ancestors. Members of the group share common cultural traits (such as language, religion, and dress) and are an identifiable minority within the larger nation-state.
Ethnicity--national origin, language, religion, food and other cultural markers.
Race--skin color, hair texture, eye shape and so on. AFRICAN AMERICAN ENGISH Systematic variety with well-defined linguistic rules HIP HOP Hornberger & McKay PHIL SZE (2012) Summary
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