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BRM 2015 6 From Archives to the Internet

Qualitative research is sometimes, unjustly, viewed as less valuable, less useful or even less robust than its quantitative counterpart. However, rather than being a lesser form of research method, qualitative methods often allow research into areas

Kevin O'Gorman

on 13 September 2015

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Transcript of BRM 2015 6 From Archives to the Internet

Archives 66 Speeches 39 Years of
Annual Reports 120+
Family Letters Drowing in Data
The Hilton Archive Over 100 Adverts 50+ Images 1000+
Documents 52 Oral History
Interviews 20,000+ sides of A4
6.5 million words Hospitality Industry Archive Also archived are reports, memorabilia, advertising, publications for other hospitality companies, such as Marriott International, Howard Johnson, Walt Disney and Carlson Hospitality Worldwide. Established in 1989, the Hilton collection provides an in-depth insight to the evolution of the Hilton brand, from its beginnings in the early 20th century – including the personal and corporate papers of Conrad, Barron and Eric Hilton. Nonreactive
When it was recorded there was no knowledge that it would be used for research Advantages No control and little knowledge with regard to conditions of original recording
Selective deposit and selective withdrawal
Need to corroborate (triangulate) with other data Disadvantages Archival Research Archival Research
Dust, Documents and Decay Public The National Archives - Billion documents on-line
Local Archives
Actuarial Records
Official Documentary Records Private Corporate bodies, estates and trusts
Charitable foundations and organisations of all kinds, such as schools, colleges and religious institutions
A vast array of societies and associations, such as political parties, pressure groups, sports and recreational clubs and businesses Diaries and letters in historical societies
Ethnographies of other cultures by anthropologists
Public documents, e.g. Speeches by politicians
Mass communications, e.g. books, magazine articles, movies, newspapers Other Statistical records
Survey archives
Written records
Company archives Collecting Data Naturally Occurring Generated Discourse Analysis: Examines the construction of texts & verbal accounts drawing on documentary & conversation analysis Biographical methods
Focus groups Participant Observation: Join the study population to record actions, interactions or events as they occur Observation Documentary Analysis: Study of existing documents e.g. media reports, government papers Conversation analysis: Detailed examination of ‘talk in interaction’ to determine how conversation is constructed & enacted to investigate social intercourse Conversation
Analysis Allows investigation of the phenomena in their natural setting
Provide data which is an ‘enactment’ of social behaviour in its own social setting
Of value where behaviours & interactions need to be understood in ‘real’ world contexts Participant
Observation Documentary
Analysis Observation: Stand outside the study population allowing actions etc. to be seen through the eyes of the researcher Discourse
Analysis Historical
Data Approaches to collecting Data
Historical Methods
Archival Research
Case study Structure of Lecture Definition of a
Research Problem The purpose of a historical research is to explain or predict
Limited to whatever data are already available
Better to study in depth a well defined problem with specific hypothesis, than to investigate a too-broadly stated problem, or one which insufficient data is available Historical Sources Secondary
Sources Second hand information
Reference books
Reports by relatives of participants or observers Primary
Sources Data Verification:
External and Criticism State your own argument or question early and your interpretations of your research results
Provide examples to support your findings to provide validity for your interpretation
Provide an objective overview of the topic that includes other interpretations that may differ from your own but also show why your interpretation, using data is new or unique.
Point out any possible unsubstantiated sections of your interpretation in order to present yourself as an objective and credible researcher and suggest that it merits further investigation. Guidelines for Writing an
Historical Dissertation Data Synthesis First hand information
Original documents
Reports by participants
Direct observers Historical data should be organized and synthesized (put all the pieces together) and conclusions and generalizations drawn
Summarization of historical research data involves logical analysis rather than statistical analysis, the researcher must take care to be as objective as possible
Ensure that all sources are considered not only those that support your original theory! All sources of historical data as subjected to analysis to:
determine its authenticity (external)
accuracy (internal) When determining the accuracy must consider:
Knowledge and competence of the author
Time delay between the occurrence and recording of events
Biases of author
Consistency of data So what can you for a dissertation when you don't have an archive? “EXPLORING NEAR EASTERN HOSPITALITY:
AND GERTRUDE BELL” Forming conclusions
Positioning conclusions within
the broader discourse
Distilling the information – building tables –actually analysing… don’t confuse colouring-in with data analysis Growing demand for hospitality and tourism products in the Middle East Hypermodernity drawing on traditional Arabic design Hotel design drawing on the idea of ‘old world’ luxury of the ‘Orient’ What ideas and images are being drawn upon and where did they originate? Our research task? Understand emergence of these ideas and images. How? By ‘historicising’ the ‘now’! Western fascination with the ‘Near East’. Desire to possess in Ancient times Amplified by religious fervour in Middle Ages Fear of Oriental-Islamic encroachment Attempt to theorise this complex mix of Desire and Hostility We place Burton and Bell’s diaries in context.
They too drew on a ‘discursive archive’. Reflected in Western ‘Orientalist’ art of the period Western confidence & expectation reflected in commercial tourism from late 19th century … ...and other cultural forms ‘Post-modern’ Orientalism The entire archive of Western imagination of the East is available to mix and match. Always Historicise! Archival and discourse analysis helps us to understand how the real and imagined past is used as a commercial resource in the ‘now’. motivation for flexibility The who and the why Gathering the data LOL The difficult part - reading - the challenge and reality of ‘drowning in data’ allowing distance and reflection as well as deep engagement

The what and the how – developed framework – preparing to code – highlighters and post-its – emergent themes. Professor Kevin D O'Gorman
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