**Lev Vygotsky**

Lev Vygotsky

Born: November 17, 1896 in Orsha, Belarus

1917: Law degree from Moscow University

Died: June 11, 1934

Noted Works

Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes

Thought and Language

Psychology of Art

Ape, Primitive Man, and Child: Essays in the History of Behavior

Educational Psychology

The Socialist Aliteration of Man

Career

Sociocultural Theory of Development

Constructivist Theory

Social interactions are critical

Self-regulation is developed through internalization

Human development occurs through the cultural transmission of tools

Language is the most critical tool

The zone of proximal development (ZPD)

Four Basic Principles

Children construct their own knowledge

Development can not be separated from its social context

Learning can lead to development

Language plays a central role in mental development

Zone of Proximal Development

Range of abilities

Peer interaction

Appropriate assistance

Appropriate tools

Moving target

3 Stages of Speech

External Speech

Egocentric Speech

Inner Speech

Language

Ability to communicate

Role of language

Role of action

3 Stages of speech

Applications for Education

Instructional scaffolding

Reciprocal teaching

Peer collaboration

Apprenticeships

Mathematics

Cognitively guided instruction in mathematics involves different relationships to Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory.

Cognitively guided instruction emphasizes instruction growing from and adapted according to levels of existing student knowledge.

The teacher and learner are actively engaged with one another in the construction of mathematical knowledge and understanding.

The Zone of Proximal Development is established in group explorations of mathematical problems, where students and teacher share strategies and thorughts in open dialogue.

Pioneering Psychologist

Sociocultural Theory

Zone of Proximal Development

Scholar

Russian Psychoneurological Congress

Studied Law

Cutlural-Historical Psychology

Child Development Education

Author

Psychology of Art (1925)

Thought and Language (1934)

CGI Lesson

MCC1.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

MCC1.OA.2 Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

MCC1.OA.3 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)

MCC1.OA.4 Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

MCC1.OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

MCC1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

MCC1.NBT.4 Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

Lesson

Discussion Questions

"Learning relies on interactions with others."

Do you agree or disagree with this statement? How accurate is this statement? Explain and give examples to clarify your position.

What do you think your response to this statement means about how you think about your role as a teacher?

References

Dunn, S. G. (2005). Philosophical foundations of education: Connecting philosophy to theory and practice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Galant, M. (2003). Vygotsky’s cultural/cognitive theory of development. Retrieved from http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/ZPD.HTML

Hausfather, S. (1996). Vygotsky and schooling: Creating a social context for learning. Retrieved from http://blogs.maryville.edu/sausfather/vita/vygotsky/

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Boston: Pearson.

Steele, D. F. (2001). Using sociocultural theory to teach mathematics: A Vygotskian perspective. School Science and Mathematics, 101(8), 404-416.

**Language**