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Transcript of Lev Vygotsky
Born: November 17, 1896 in Orsha, Belarus
1917: Law degree from Moscow University
Died: June 11, 1934
Mind in Society: Development of Higher Psychological Processes
Thought and Language
Psychology of Art
Ape, Primitive Man, and Child: Essays in the History of Behavior
The Socialist Aliteration of Man
Sociocultural Theory of Development
Social interactions are critical
Self-regulation is developed through internalization
Human development occurs through the cultural transmission of tools
Language is the most critical tool
The zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Four Basic Principles
Children construct their own knowledge
Development can not be separated from its social context
Learning can lead to development
Language plays a central role in mental development
Zone of Proximal Development
Range of abilities
3 Stages of Speech
Ability to communicate
Role of language
Role of action
3 Stages of speech
Applications for Education
Cognitively guided instruction in mathematics involves different relationships to Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory.
Cognitively guided instruction emphasizes instruction growing from and adapted according to levels of existing student knowledge.
The teacher and learner are actively engaged with one another in the construction of mathematical knowledge and understanding.
The Zone of Proximal Development is established in group explorations of mathematical problems, where students and teacher share strategies and thorughts in open dialogue.
Zone of Proximal Development
Russian Psychoneurological Congress
Child Development Education
Psychology of Art (1925)
Thought and Language (1934)
MCC1.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
MCC1.OA.2 Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
MCC1.OA.3 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.)
MCC1.OA.4 Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
MCC1.OA.5 Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
MCC1.OA.6 Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
MCC1.NBT.4 Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.
"Learning relies on interactions with others."
Do you agree or disagree with this statement? How accurate is this statement? Explain and give examples to clarify your position.
What do you think your response to this statement means about how you think about your role as a teacher?
Dunn, S. G. (2005). Philosophical foundations of education: Connecting philosophy to theory and practice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
Galant, M. (2003). Vygotsky’s cultural/cognitive theory of development. Retrieved from http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/VYG/ZPD.HTML
Hausfather, S. (1996). Vygotsky and schooling: Creating a social context for learning. Retrieved from http://blogs.maryville.edu/sausfather/vita/vygotsky/
Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. Boston: Pearson.
Steele, D. F. (2001). Using sociocultural theory to teach mathematics: A Vygotskian perspective. School Science and Mathematics, 101(8), 404-416.