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Chemical Compounds and Their Uses

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by

Cathrine Williams

on 3 May 2014

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Transcript of Chemical Compounds and Their Uses

Chemicals and Their Uses
CHEMICALS
Chemicals can be found in everyday household products such as cleansers, detergents, soap, shampoo, tooth paste, car oil, etc.
Chemicals can cause poisoning if ingested, and not treated quickly and correctly, can be fatal. They attack the internal organs and can cause various types of diseases. We can prevent these side effects by using household chemicals correctly and by reading the warning labels and directions of use before using it.
Addictive and psychotropic substances are divided into three parts, which are cigarettes/tobacco, drugs, and psychotropic substances.
Cleaner products are harmful if swallowed/ingested, and only few do no harm. Reading the warning labels can prevent danger. The ones we use everyday are as follows:
- Soap - Toothpaste
- Detergent - Shampoo
- Bleach
Chemicals take a big role in us humans' daily life. Without them, our lives wouldn't function normally and as modern.
The Chemical Differences inside Cleaner Products
Side Effects of Chemicals
Addictive and Psychotropic Substances
Chemicals in Everyday Household Items
Warning Labels On Everyday Household Products
On household products, there will be warning labels. It is just the matter of being able to read them and understand what they mean.
Warning Signs
Corrosive
Flammable
Shapes of the Signs
This warning label
means that the
gas inside burns
easily
This warning label
means that we
should avoid touching
it or having contact
with the chemical.
This warning label means that the chemical is poisonous and is harmful to the body.
This symbol means
that the container
is explosive.
If the shape
of the sign
is a triangle, it means
that the container is
dangerous.
If the shape of the sign
is an octagon, it means
that the contents are
dangerous.
The shapes don't
always determine which is dangerous.
This explains what chemical is dangerous
in the product/
This means that the
contents are biohazardous.
At times, there are no warning
labels but instead writings saying the dangers of the contents or container.
There are also writings
explaining the causes that
are caused by the contents
to the body.
Drain cleaners are corrosive
because they contain
sulfuric acid.
LPGs are flammable because of the hydrocarbon gases contained in it.
Insecticides contain
sarin, tabun, etc. and
is poisonous if ingested.
This is flammable
because the can
is pressurized.
Pesticides contain dihydrogen oxide.
Biohazardous
chemicals can
be found in factories.
Soap
Soap is an everyday item that we use to cleanse our external body. Soaps are dangerous and poisonous if ingested or if it enters your body some other way.
Chemicals in Soap
Soap is a sodium or potassium fatty acid that is mixed with other fats and goes through a chemical reaction called saponification. They contain lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linolenic acids. They also contain fats from different types of oils, such as olive oil, canola oil, etc. to add the scents.
Detergent
Detergent is used to clean clothes and anything that we wear. Detergents are very harmful and poisonous to the body if ingested, since they contain chemicals such as alkylbenzenesulfonates, which is also in soaps but the type in detergents are much more strong and have a higher PH-level.
Toothpaste
Toothpaste is needed to clean our teeth and to keep it healthy and white (wink). Toothpaste's main ingredient is sodium fluoride, which is also found in rat poison. There is also triclosan, which is an anti-bacterial ingredient.
Shampoo
Shampoo is used to cleanse our hair and to help keep it healthy and thick. Shampoo is not to be ingested and is harmful. It contains some ingredients in soap such as glycol and sodium chloride. The main ingredient in shampoo, however, is ammonium chloride which helps thicken hair.
Bleach
Bleach is used to remove color on (usually white) clothes. Bleach contains lots of chemicals that are harmful to the body and should not be ingested. It contains sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium perborate which are very harmful.
Chemicals in Paint
Paint contains pigments to give it color, solvents to make it easy to apply. The pigments are just composed of colored acids/chemicals, and different colors have different types of acids. Solvents contain petroleum, mineral spirits, benzyl, alcohol, esters, ketones, and acetone. It also contains additives, such as calcium carbonate.
Chemicals in Insecticide
Insecticides are used to intoxicate and get rid of insects. They can come in spray repellants, liquid, solid, etc. They contain nicotine, a basic chemical also found in cigars. Pyrethroid and ryanoid are used to kill household pests and bees.
My Opinion on Chemicals in Household Products
I think that we need to use chemicals in these household products, because if we don't, we won't be able to clean ourselves nor our shelter and clothes properly. No matter what, we still need chemicals. It is just the matter of using it correctly and reading the labels.
Liquor/Alcohol Substances
Liquor is bad for our health since it can cause kidney and heart problems. It can also cause cancer and diabetes. It causes kidney problems, and one way of seeing it is how alcoholics tend to pee much more often than those who don't drink alcohol. If you drink alcohol too often, it gives you a bad image and in Indonesia, you will be a disgrace to your family.
Cigarette/Tobacco Substances
Smoking is bad for your health and mainly affects your lungs, may trigger ling cancer, Tuberculosis, etc. If a pregnant woman smokes, it can cause stillbirth, preterm delivery, low birth weight, orofacial clefts in infants, birth defects, etc. It also affects the blood system, causing acute myeloid leukemia. It contains nicotine which is found in disinfectants.
Psychotropic Substances
Depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants are three out of many types of psychotropic substances. Psychotropic substances are substances that affect the nervous system to heal different types of psycholo-gical problems, if consumed in the right dosage.
Depressants
Depressant is a drug that lowers the neurotransmission levels in the central nervous system, which lowers stimulation. Depressants should only be used at the correct doses because if a high dosage is taken in, it may be fatal. It 'weakens' and immobilizes the body at some points.
Hallucinogens
Hallucinogen is a drug that reduces one's hallucinations which is at times caused by stress or a psychological disorder. Hallucinogens are divided into psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. It changes one's thoughts, emotions, hallucinations, etc. The side effects are not too bad/serious but is dangerous if consumed in an irregularly high dose.
Stimulant
Stimulant is a drug that increases physical and mental activity and makes temporary improvements in them. It is used to enhance alertness and locomotion. It is very dangerous if consumed at an irregularly high dose, since it may cause an overdose and may be fatal. Stimulants are the opposite of depressants.
Drug Addicts
Drug addicts look physically weak. They tend to be more aggressive and depressed. They tend to also lose focus easily. They also spend much more money, in order to buy the drugs. They can be helped by going to rehab or to make them completely stop, because they can't stop on their own. It is impossible.
How to Prevent Ourselves From Using Drugs
We can prevent ourselves from using drugs by picking our friends, and making sure that we don't 'chill' with free people and just anyone, we need to be mroe protective and be strict. If someone offers us something that we don't know what it is, we need to say no. Drugs can take form of anything. We also need to prevent stress, because that is usually what causes people to get into drugs.
Are All Psychotropic Substances Dangerous?
No, they're not. They can help us in our lives, such as if we have a psychological issue, psychotropic substances can help us. It only becomes bad if we consume too much and get an overdose or if it develops into an addiction.
Chemicals in Food
Chemicals can also be found in food, but these chemicals are edible and not as hard as the ones used in household cleaning products.
Food Additive Substances
Food additives are used to enhance the flavor, smell, appearance, to preserve, etc. Food additives have many kinds but the ones just mentioned are the most common.

Natural Food Additives
Natural food additives are made of natural ingredients, such as spices, herbs and oils. These are the additives that DO NOT contain any type of chemical that is harmful to the body. Natural food additives don't cause harm, unless one is allergic. Salt and pepper are two basic examples of natural food additives.
Artificial Food Additives
Artificial food additives are those that are not natural and contains non-organic chemicals. Artificial food additives could be artificial sweetener, artificial food coloring, etc. One of the most common artificial flavor enhancer is monosodium glutamate (MSG), and is harmful to the body if it is ingested too often, since in a long period of time, it may develop into cancer.
Food Additives in Everyday Foods
Yogurt contains artificial
sweetener.
Milk contains sorbic
acid, sodium, and other
artificial additives.
1 cone of ice cream
contains 1,400 types
of artificial additives
including peperonal.
Biscuits contain
indigotine, an additive
that triggers cancer.
Butter contains
annatto extracts
which can cause
asthma.
Sausages contain
potassium nitrite
that destroys blood
cells
Bread contains sodium
propionate and potassium
propionate.
Chewing gum contains propyl gallate, which causes asthma
Jam contains
mannitol which
causes hyperactivity.
Canned fish contains
chlorine, a chemical
used to clean pools.
Advantages in Using Additives
They enhance the flavor, smell, appearance, and preserve the food we are eating. Natural additives have health benefits since they are made from natural ingredients.
Disadvantages in Using Additives
Additives can cause diseases, especially if used/ingested too often. Especially the artificial ones, they can cause various allergies, diseases, health issues, etc. The natural ones can cause allergies and hyperactivity because some of them react with the brain.
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