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Cold War Presentation
Transcript of Cold War Presentation
Context Presentation: History of Public Discourse
By: Camron Burns and Connor Rich
What was the Cold War?
The Cold War actually has been argued to have started during WWII and it ended following the declaration of glasnost and perestroika and the abolishment of the USSR in 1991.
The roots of the war began with tension between the Soviets and the United States during their alliance in WWII
Americans were concerned about Communism and the Soviets expansionary attempts to control the world. They were especially worried about leader Jospeh Stalin's tyrannical, blood-thirsty rule.
What was the Cold War cont.
This tension was especially scary because it was the first war where the players had the capability to end life as we know it.
Nuclear weapons were now accessible by other nations than America.
The weapons power was drastically demonstrated when America dropped them on Japan
It has actually been rumored that another reason that the bombs were dropped in Japan were to intimidate the Russians. However they opposite occured and the USSR tried to build thier own.
It was referred to as the Cold War because their was no direct battles fought or war officially declared.
However this is fairly inaccurate because their were many cases of physical conflict.
By far the main players were the US and the USSR.
Since both were major world players they were going to influence outside countries to pick a side.
The atmosphere during the war can be divided into 3 worlds:
1st world- US, Great Britain, Western Europe, and basically any country that embraced capitalism and democracy. (NATO)
2nd world- Soviet Union and its satellites, mostly the Warsaw pact nations, China, and Cuba
3rd world- Everyone else (hugely diverse), however many of these nations would be coerced into a side through violence and political interference from two powers
Aftermath of World War II
After the war Europe was in shambles.
Postdam Conference in 1945- President Truman, Stalin, and England divided up Germany and other european nations to aid in their rebuilding efforts.
Berlin was also divided four ways which created tension since it was located in Soviet Union owned East Germany
Implementation of the Truman Doctrince/Marshall Plan
At the conclusion of World War II the United States needed a strategy to combat growing communism and Soviet Expansion
The strategy proposed was called "containment"
"long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies." -President Harry Truman
Using the Truman Doctrine their strategy was to combat Soviet Expansion by gaining alliances with countries around the USSR .
This strategy would shape foreign policy for four decades.
The Arms Race
The containment strategy led to a massive arms buildup in the US.
Especially concerning was the increased production of nuclear weapons on both sides
Truman even announced the creation of a even more destructive atomic bomb, the Hydrogen bomb, as a result of Soviet's production of atomic bombs.
The Space Race
Space served as another area for Cold War competition and a place for the nations to flex their muscles.
This resulted in the US & USSR wanting to be the first into space.
October 4th, 1957 Soviets launched Sputnik
U.S. reacts by launching satellite of their own
NASA is formed by Eisenhower in 1958
U.S. then sends first person into space and later in 1969 they send Neil Armstrong to the moon.
The first person on the moon was seen as a huge win for the U.S. and effectively won them the Space Race
"Hot War" cont.
Many conflicts arose because USSR and US were both pushing their agenda into third world countries trying to gain support
Specifically the U.S. intervened in Afghanistan, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala to help combat communism.
In many cases US established horrible corrupt leaders in these countries that would later come back to haunt them.
3 large USSR instigated conflicts were the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and conflict in Cuba.
After WWII Korea was divided into a communist North and an American occupied South.
The war began when North Korea invaded South Korea
America came to the Souths aid following their containment strategy
The war ended basically ended in a stalemate and President Eisenhower was able to sign a peace treaty that returned the area virtually back to the way it was before the war..
War began in 1954, due to the rise to power of Ho Chi Minh and the communist party in north Vietnam
U.S. had a presence in South Vietnam and came to their aid as violence was breaking out
The strategy of containment failed miserbly in this war
South Vietnam was unmotivated
Pressure from back home pushed for the war to end
Nixon ordered the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973
Vietnam quickly fell to communist forces.
The Cold War Comes to an End
The election of Richard Nixon started a new approach to international relations.
Used Diplomacy instead of military action
Was able to establish diplomatic relationships with China and USSR
The Cold War Comes to an End cont.
However, Reagan believed that the spread of communism anywhere threatened freedom
Went back to a much more militaristic approach
Fought communism in Central America
Soviet Union was disintegrating during his time in office
The Cold War Comes to an End cont.
Mikhail Gorbachev took office for the USSR in 1985
They were facing severe economic problems and growing political adversity
Introduced "glasnost" (political openess) and "perestroika" (economic reform)
In 1989, every other communist state in eastern Europe replaced its government with a non communist one.
In the same year the Berlin Wall was destroyed
By 1991, the Soviet Union had fallen apart
War covered four decades
No single norms, values, or traditions
Constant fear of Nuclear Holocaust
Mutual hatred of USSR
Translated into constant competition: Arms Race, Space Race, Miracle on Ice
Hippie Anti-War effort
Bear vs. Uncle Sam
Common for American citizens to have bomb shelters built and stockpiles of goods for an apocalypse
School children faced yearly bomb drills
Cold War's affect on Pop Culture
The War greatly affected pop culture.
Affected music, art, tv shows, movies, toys, games, public entertainment, comics, etc.
Movies: James Bond, War Games,
TV: Rocky & Bullwinkle
Toys: GI Joe
Games: Missile Command
Comics: Iron Man, Captain America
Music: "99 Red Balloons" Nena,
John F. Kennedy
Elected in 1960 as the 35th president of the U.S.
At 43 became youngest man to hold office
Born into one of America's wealthiest and most influential families
Had elite education and reputation as a military hero that helped him get into office
Renewed public service and provided federal support for the growing civil rights movement
Dealt with Cuban missile crisis and construction of Berline Wall.
As a result of the Berlin Wall he sent an army convoy to West Berlin to assure them of support and it was there he delivered his famous speech "Ich bin Ein Beliner"
He was assassinated on November 22,1963 in Dallas Texas
Former actor and California governor
Elected as 40th president
Served two terms from 1981-1989
Named the "Great Communicator"
Communism was great evil
More aggressive approach
Cut taxes, increased defense spending, negotiated a nuclear arms reduction agreement with Soviets, and is credited with bringing a quicker end to the Cold War.
In 1987, he delivered the famous "Address at the Berlin Wall." (Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this Wall!)
Long lasting Tension between U.S. and USSR
Contrary to the name their was a lot of major conflict
Had a great impact on American culture
Set the stage for the new implications of war and still affects American consciousness today
The Berlin wall was erected in the Dead of night in 1961 and was destroyed nearly as instantly as it was erected 28 years later.
The Berlin Wall represented two boundaries during the Cold War.
The first was the literal divide between East and West Germany from 1961 to1989
The second was a symbolic barrier between Democracy and Communism
Following WWII, Germany was divided into four zones amongst the Allied powers. The same was done with the German capital of Berlin.
Democracy vs. Communism
Three vs. One
August 12-13, 1961
No more movement
Size and Transformations
The Red Scare
The First Red Scare
The Second Red Scare
Joesph McCarthy and McCarthyism
List and Hearings
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis/October Crisis/Carribbean Crisis
October of 1962
Lasted 13 days
Cuba and USSR vs. USA
Concern over Communism
Bay of Pigs
US missile placement
Cuban Missile Crisis cont
Deployment and Crisis
End of Crisis
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