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Copy of Advertising Week 5 - Elaboration Likelihood Model
Transcript of Copy of Advertising Week 5 - Elaboration Likelihood Model
Critically Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Elaboration of Likelihood Model
Introduction- What is ELM?
The Central Route
"Differences in the ways consumers process and respond to persuasive messages are addressed in the ELM of persuasion."
(BELCH & BELCH 2009)
What is ELM?
It was a
This is a direct route of persuasion that appeals to logic and involves a great deal of thought.
This route is characterized by a high level of motivation and the ability to process the core elements of the persuasive elements.
(Eckert & Goldsby 1997)
When involvement is high we should expect consumers to draw on prior knowledge and experience and scrutinize or elaborate on message arguments that are central to the advertisers case.
(O'Guinn et al, 2009)
- High personal relevance
- Low distraction
- High Accountability
- High repetition
- High need for cognition
This is an extension of the ELM which is used to position products at a low, high or moderate thought level.
Centered on the features of the ad instead of the argument of the message.
Advertisers want to entice consumers to buy their product. They do this by including a famous face or catchy jingle to prompt an emotional response.
Ensures that consumers are continually entertained.
Help consumers form a positive attitudes of the brand.
Can lead to rejection of a message
When involvement is low, people have less motivation to process the arguments of the message.
- Low personal relevance
- High Distraction
- Low accountability
- Low repetition
- Low need for cognition
Limitations & Other Frameworks
- Long term
- Cost efficient
- Provides a lot of information to consumers
- Hard to change and adapt
- not as entertaining
Although we acknowledge the usefulness of ELM
as a framework for conceptualizing attitude formation and change, we wish to argue for several limitations of significance in consumer research.
(Bitner & Obermiller, 1985)
Limitations of ELM
-Central cues, peripheral cues--which are which?
-How does peripheral processing influence affect?
-Are there differences in the strengths of peripherally and centrally processed attitudes?
-Can the central processor make do with peripheral cues?
Heuristic Systematic Model
This model is another dual processing theory developed by Shelly Chaiken. "The model's dual processing framework proposes two basic models of processing by which social judgements can be made- the heuristic and systematic modes of processing."
Systematic Processing involves analysing the information gathered in the Heuristic process. To do this, cognitive ability and capability must be obtained to process the information.
(Duckworth & Chaiken, 1999)
Can you identify which type of route has been used in these adverts?
After a comparison of similar models and in depth research of the ELM Framework, the conclusion has been drawn that ELM is the most effective theory when explaining the cognitive and effective information processing.
This framework gives a good insight into how consumers can be enticed by either central or peripheral routes as they target consumers in different ways.
Belch, G. Belch, M. (2009). Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective . 8th ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin. pp.167 -173.
Cheryl, S. Duckworth, K. , Chaiken, S.. (1999). Motivated Heuristic and Systematic Processing . Psychological Inquiry . 10th Edition (1), pp. 44- 49.
Eckbert, J. Goldsby, T. (1997). “Using the elaboration likelihood model to guide customer service based segmentation”. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 27 Iss:9 pp. 600 -615.
MacKenzie, S. Spreng, R.. (1992). How does motivation moderate the impact of central & peripheral processing on buying and attitudes and intentions? . Journal of Consumer Research . Volume 18 ( 1), pp. 519 - 529.
Mary J. Bitner and Carl Obermiller (1985) ,"The Elaboration Likelihood Model: Limitations and Extensions in Marketing", in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12, eds. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Moris B. Holbrook, Advances in Consumer Research Volume 12 : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 420-425
O'Guinn, T. Allen, C. Semenik, R. (2009). Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion . 5th ed. Ohio, USA: South-Western Cengage Learning . pp. 169 - 171.