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Transcript of Play Styles
(Fiero) Confusion Triumph
(Fiero) Excitement Mastermind Achiever Socialiser Daredevil Survivor Conqueror Seeker Association Areas Seeker Fear Centre Survivor Adrenal Glands Daredevil Adrenal Glands Conqueror Social Centre Socialiser Decision Centre Mastermind Oxytocin Epinephrine
(Adrenalin) Norepinephrine Dopamine Achiever Pleasure Centre Happy Surprise Sadness Disgust Anger Contempt Fear Ekman, Paul (2003). Emotions Revealed, New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. Surname, Forename (Year). Title, City: Publisher. Harvard Citations: Books Some Folks Yell Towards City Pigeons Book title in italics or initial Bateman, Chris and Boon, Richard (2005). 21st Century Game Design, Boston, MA: Charles River Media. Lazzaro, Nicole (2009). “Understand Emotions” in Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps Towards Creating Better Videogames, Chris Bateman (Ed), Tampa, FL: Thompson. Ekman, P. (1992). “An Argument for Basic Emotions.” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 6 no. 3/4, pp. 169–200. "Bateman and Boon (2005) state..." "The Four Fun Keys model (Lazzaro 2009, p50) claims..." "...arguing for basic emotions (Ekman 1992)." Surname, Forename (Year). "Title", Journal, volume, number, pages. Some Folks Yell Towards Junior Very Nice Pigeons Harvard Citations: Articles Article titles in quotes (1) (2) (3) (4) (7) (5) (6) Surname, Forename (Year). Title [Format], City: Publisher. Harvard Citations: Games Some Folks Yell Towards Fallen City Pigeons Game title in italics or Developer Persson, Markus "Notch" (2011). Minecraft [PC Game], Chris Bateman (Ed), Stockholm: Mojang AB. DMA Design (1997). Grand Theft Auto [Multiformat Videogame], New York, NY: BMG Interactive. Iwatani, Toru (1980). Pac-man [Arcade Game], Tokyo: Namco. "Pac-man (Iwatani, 1980) was..." "...with Minecraft (Persson, 2011) we see..." "...in Grand Theft Auto (DMA, 1997)..." Okami (Clover Studio, 2006) Resident Evil Zero (Capcom Production Studio 3, 2002) Burnout Paradise (Criterion, 2008) Age of Empires (Ensemble, 1997) Super Smash Bros. Melee (HAL Laboratory, 2001) Left 4 Dead (Turtle Rock, 2008) Pokémon Platinum (Game Freak, 2008) 2005 2009 2011 Ekman, Paul (2003). Emotions Revealed, Henry Holt and Company. Player Satisfaction Models Emotions and Microexpressions Harvard
System Your Brain on Games Defining 'Game' Crawford's Taxonomy of Creative Expression (1984/2003) Agency aesthetic Victory aesthetic Conflict aesthetic “a good game is a series of interesting choices”
- Sid Meier Decision aesthetic "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal."
- Greg Costikyan (Victory aesthetic) (Conflict aesthetic) Decision aesthetic Diplomacy
Role-playing Variety of Encounter
Narrative Tension What can "Strengthen games"? Social Aesthetic Imaginative Aesthetic Uncertainty Aesthetic "Games are puzzles to solve, just like everything else we encounter in life [and] serve as very fundamental and powerful learning tools."
- Raph Koster 1994 2005 Problem aesthetic Learning aesthetic (Decision Aesthetic) "Playing a game is the act of solving statistically varied challenge situations presented by an opponent who may or may not be algorithmic within a framework that is a defined systemic model."
- Raph Koster 2012 System aesthetic (Victory aesthetic) (Conflict aesthetic) Crawford, Chris (2003). Chris Crawford on Game Design, Indianapolis, IN: New Riders.. Costikyan, Greg (1994). “I Have No Words and I Must Design”, Interactive Fantasy, no. 2. Koster, Raph (2005). A Theory of Fun for Game Design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press. Koster, Raph (2012). “‘X’ isn’t a game!”. Raph Koster's Website [online], http://www.raphkoster.com/2012/03/13/x-isnt-a-game/ (Accessed 17 April 2012). Costikyan, Greg (1994). “I Have No Words and I Must Design”, Interactive Fantasy, no. 2. "Games are not mathematical systems. They are systems that always have a human being, full of desires, excitement and immense cleverness, sitting smack dab in the center. To accurately describe games, we need a working psychological model of the player."
- Dan Cook 2007 "Our player model is simple: The player is entity that is driven, consciously or subconsciously, to learn new skills high in perceived value. They gain pleasure from successfully acquiring skills."
- Dan Cook Cook, Dan (2007). “The Chemistry of Game Design”. Gamasutra [online], http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/129948/the_chemistry_of_game_design.php (Accessed 17 April 2012). (Learning aesthetic) (System aesthetic) Curiosity aesthetic Biederman, Irving and Vessel, Edward A. (2006). “Perceptual Pleasure and the Brain.” American Scientist, no. 94 (May-June), pp. 247-253. "...all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, and voluntary participation."
- Jane McGonigal "...The feedback system tells players how close they are to achieving the goal."
- Jane McGonigal "...Real-time feedback serves as a promise to the players that the goal is definitely achievable, and it provides motivation to keep playing."
- Jane McGonigal "...What’s key here? Goals. Opposition. Resource management. Information."
- Greg Costikyan Games involve... Rules Fiction (Victory aesthetic) but no (Conflict aesthetic)! Victory
aesthetic (+conflict) (+decision, systems,
learning) (+agency, curiosity) (+voluntary, playful) Horror
aesthetic? McGonigal, Jane (2011). Reality is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World, London: J. Cape. Goal: “to stack falling puzzle pieces, leaving as few gaps as possible in between them” "As you successfully lock in Tetris puzzle pieces, you get three kinds of feedback: visual – you can see row after row of pieces disappearing with a satisfying poof; quantitative – a prominently displayed score constantly ticks upwards; and qualitative you experience a steady increase in how challenging the game feels."
- Jane McGonigal = Instructions for play Pajitnov, Alexey (1984). Tetris [E60 Videogame]. Atari (1988). Tetris [Arcade Game], Los Angeles: Atari Games Bullet-Proof Software (1989). Tetris [Game Boy Game], Kyoto: Nintendo Reward aesthetic "...to play a game is to engage in activity directed towards bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by specific rules, where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of rules, and where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity."
- Bernard Suits "…playing a game is the voluntary attempt to overcome unnecessary obstacles."
- Bernard Suits Lusory Attitude Suits, Bernard (1966). “What is a Game?” Philosophy of Science, vol. 34, no. 2 (June), pp. 148:156. Suits, Bernard (1978). The Grasshopper: Games, Life and Utopia, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. (Victory aesthetic)
(Conflict aesthetic) Caillois: everything that constitutes play is... free (non-obligatory) separated by limits specified in advance uncertain unproductive governed by rules entails make-believe Caillois, Roger (1962). Man, Play and Games. Translated by Barash, Meyer, London: Thames & Hudson. 1958 1966/78 Voluntary aesthetic Uncertainty aesthetic 2007/09 Malaby, Thomas M. (2007). “Beyond Play: A New Approach to Games”, Games and Culture, vol. 2, no. 2, pp 95-113. Malaby, Thomas M. (2009). “Anthropology and Play: The Contours of Playful Experience”, New Literary History, vol. 40, no. 1, pp 205-218. "A game is a semibounded and socially legitimate domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes."
- Thomas Malaby “play [is ]a dispositional stance toward the indeterminate”.
- Thomas Malaby Play as disposition Playful aesthetic (Uncertainty aesthetic) Anthropology of Play "We do assume a unity in such concepts [as Art and Games], and we are not silly to do so, because they all deal with human needs, which certainly do have a structure."
- Mary Midgley 1974 66. Consider for example the proceedings that we call "games"...[to] look and see whether there is anything common to all... 67. ...I can think of no better expression to characterize these similarities than "family resemblances"... And I shall say: "games" form a family.
- Ludwig Wittgenstein Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953). Philosophical Investigations, translated by Anscombe, G.E.M (1962), New York, NY: Macmillan. 1953 Midgley, Mary (1974). "The Game Game", Philosophy, vol. 49, no. 189, pp. 231-253. Let us presuppose Bateman, Chris (forthcoming). "Implicit Game Aesthetics" Testosterone and Play Dangerous
to know Lean Mean Puberty Biology Health Costs Bad Dad Archer, John (1977). "Testosterone and persistence in mice", Animal Behaviour, Vol. 25, Part 2 (May ), pp. 479-488. Andrew, Richard John and Rogers, Lesley J. (1972). “Testosterone, Search Behaviour and Persistence”, Nature, vol. 237, no. 5354 (June), pp. 343-346. BrainHex Affect: Affect Display: Positive Affect: Negative Affect: the experience of emotion Some Definitions enjoyable mood or emotion unpleasant mood or emotion external signs of mood or emotion Fear (1) (2) (4) (5) (3) (6) (a) (b) (c) Curiosity Confusion Amusement Anger Triumph (Fiero) (Laughter) (Interest) (3) Anger
(6) Triumph (1) Fear
(6) Triumph (2) Curiosity
(6) Triumph Screw Around Indra Nooyi 35 million units McGonigal on Tetris Conqueror Mastermind Achiever Seeker Daredevil Survivor Socialiser Surname, Forename (Year). Title, City: Publisher. Harvard Citations: Books Some Folks Yell Towards City Pigeons Book title in italics or initial Bateman, Chris and Boon, Richard (2005). 21st Century Game Design, Boston, MA: Charles River Media. "Bateman and Boon (2005) state..." Lazzaro, Nicole (2009). “Understand Emotions” in Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps Towards Creating Better Videogames, Chris Bateman (Ed), Tampa, FL: Thompson. "The Four Fun Keys model (Lazzaro 2009, p50) claims..." Ekman, P. (1992). “An Argument for Basic Emotions.” Cognition and Emotion, vol. 6 no. 3/4, pp. 169–200. "...arguing for basic emotions (Ekman 1992)." Surname, Forename (Year). "Title", Journal, volume, number, pages. Some Folks Yell Towards Junior Very Nice Pigeons Harvard Citations: Articles Article titles in quotes Surname, Forename (Year). Title [Format], City: Publisher. Harvard Citations: Games Some Folks Yell Towards Fallen City Pigeons Game title in italics or Developer Iwatani, Toru (1980). Pac-man [Arcade Game], Tokyo: Namco. "Pac-man (Iwatani, 1980) was..." Persson, Markus "Notch" (2011). Minecraft [PC Game], Chris Bateman (Ed), Stockholm: Mojang AB. "...with Minecraft (Persson, 2011) we see..." DMA Design (1997). Grand Theft Auto [Multiformat Videogame], New York, NY: BMG Interactive. "...in Grand Theft Auto (DMA, 1997)..." Harvard
System Zabrak Bateman, Chris and Nacke, Lennart (Forthcoming). “Neurobiological foundations for player satisfaction modelling” in Magy Seif El-Nasr, Alessandro Canossa, Anders Drachen, Katherine Isbister (Eds), Game Telemetry and Metrics: Maximizing the Value of your Data. Endomorphin