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World History B Review Josh Sorensen SR

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Josh Sorensen SR

on 21 May 2014

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Transcript of World History B Review Josh Sorensen SR

The Renaissance
Renaissance = Rebirth. Its major characteristic was humanism.
Wealthy Merchants like the de Medici family help fund the renaissance.
It was a time that brought intellectual and economic change for Europe.
People moved out to the rural areas (country) and into the urban areas (cities).
It followed the black death (the plague) and the economic changes that resulted, starting in Italy then up through Northern Europe.
Shakespeare lived and wrote his plays in London, England.
Renaissance Art (paintings, frescoes, plays, poetry, sculptures, etc.) focused on Humans, humans concerns and humans problems and increased creativity across Europe.
Medieval Art focused on Religious themes and used dark, drab colors.
Leonardo de Vinci = painter, inventor, scientist, mathematician, used the triangle a lot, painted the Mona Lisa, used poor material in own invented paint that has not lasted well.
Michelangelo = painter/fresco, sculptor, architect, created the David, designed Peter's Basilica, and fresco painted the Sistine Chapel.
Raphael = the red ninja turtle (with sai for weapons) was also know for painting the Madonna.
The Reformation
The Reformation was a major religious change in the 1500s.
Prior to the Reformation, the Catholic Church unified Western Europe.
A result of the Reformation was several new Christian churches and less power to the Catholic Church.
Martin Luther: founded the
Lutheran
Church. He was upset that the bible was not
accessible
to the people, since it was primarily in
Latin
, so he translated it into German. He was also upset that the Pope through Tetzel was selling
indulgences
. He was also confused that the bible said salvation is through
Faith
. So he wrote the
95 Thesis
to
reform
the Catholic Church and
nailed
it to the church door.
Gutenberg's Printing Press helped spread new ideas like Martin Luther's (similar to the internet today) and also improved literature, essays, poetry, maps and all other written or printable items.
Henry VIII: was very opposed to the reformation and helped start a counter-reformation. But when the pope would not let him divorce his wife, he decided to take all Catholic property in England and become the head of the Church of England (purely for personal reasons).
The Age of Exploration and Discovery
European nations wanted to cut out the middle man (Italy) in their trade with Asia (India & China), so they started to Explore new ways to get to Asia to trade for goods like spices, silk, porcelain, ect.


Portugal and it's Prince Henry the Navigator lead the way in the age of discovery. He set up a school that taught the use of tool like the sextant, astrolabe, and compass. He started exploration in Africa. They colonized parts of Africa and North East South America (modern day Brazil).


Spain: followed close behind trying to reach Asia by sailing West.
They paid for Christopher Columbus' Journey, even though he was Italian. When CC landed on Hispanolia, he was viewed as a God. He eventually enslaved the natives.
The Spanish kept going back to the Americas seeking gold and brought disease and death with them, like the influenza which devistated the population of the natives.
They used conquistadors like Cortez to build emipires in the Americas and conquer nations like the Aztecs and Incas. The conquistadors had better weapons and disease on their side and were victorious.
Amerigo Vespucci: an Italian who sailed out of Spain, he kept good records and as a result was credited with the discovery of America.


Ponce de Leon: was searching for the fountain of youth and ended up discovering and naming Florida.

Portugal and Spain were fighting over the Americas, so the pope picked a longitude line and gave the west to Spain and the east to Portugal, this was called the Treaty of Tordesilla.


Europe befitted most form the age of Exploration and Discovery, it expanded it's influence throughout the Western Hemisphere and Africa. There used to be isolated regions in the world like North and South America.



By the 1500s, the most important trade item from Africa was slaves.


The most dangerous aspects of Sea travel at the time was Weather, Disease, & Pirates.
Blue: Portugal
White: Spain

Scientific
Revolution
Galileo: Really upset the church for his views on the universe and was banished and nearly killed by the church. He used the scientific method. Built his own Telescope.

Copernicus: Believed that the Earth orbited the Sun.

Issac Newton: developed Newton's laws of motion. He used the scientific method.

Sir Francis Bacon: Believed that Experimentation and observation was the best way to learn. He used the scientific method.
Revolution:
Political, Economic, Technological, Intellectual, etc.
Not all are violent.
Not all political are shifting to Democracy.
Technological Rev: Internet, sewing machine, copier, car, cell phone, etc.
Any Revolutions can be considered good or bad depending on your point-of-view.

American
Revolution:
Declaration of Independence: The document largely influenced by John Locke that expressed the Colonist's desire for independence and used by many nations as an example of Democracy.
American Colonist were upset that they were paying taxes, but had no direct representation in Parliament.
Washington: Colonial/American General of Rev War.
Lexington and Concord: The first Battles of the Am Rev War.
Ethan Allen: Lead the Colonists in the taking of Fort Ticonderoga.
Saratoga: turning point in the war.
France: started neutral, but aided the Colonists later in the war.
Treaty of Paris: the document that signified the end of the war.
French Revolution
Bourgeoisie: is the middle class.
During the French Rev, the Bourgeoisie gained more power.
Nationalism: the love of country more than the leader.
Versailles: home of French Monarch, marched on by women over bread.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man: All men are born free and equal.
Guillotine: used by the Committee on Public Safety to kill thousands who opposed the Rev.
King Louis XVI was killed during the French Revolution by his own people.
Napoleon: offered stability in unstable time, provided popular reforms like equal protection under the law, was considered a dictator, lost the war against Russia, also lost at Waterloo then was banished.
Industrial & Economic Revolution
Many people moved to urban areas.
Coal was used to make iron and power steam engines which powered the Industrial Revolution.
Factories: unsafe, unsanitary, poor lighting, dirty, Unions fight to fix.
Urban: dirty and harsh.
Britain had a lot of coal so...
Industrial Revolution:
Economic Revolution:
Socialism: the Society/nation owns and controls facets of production.
Communism: created by Karl Marx in the "Communist Manifesto" believes that all people should own and control facets of production collectively and have no social classes.
Capitalism: Adam Smith wrote "The Wealth of Nations" which explains that individuals should own the facets of production and that by giving more opportunities to the low and middle classes, will help all people in the society.
Revolutions
World Wars
WWI: started because of the militarism of Europe with allies drug into the war, caused by assassination of Arch-Duke of Austria, considered to be the first modern war because it happened after the Industrial Revolution so weapons like the machine gun were used and caused greater destruction and death, trench warfare was also used
Central Forces: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Bulgaria
Triple Entente (Allies): U.K., France, Italy, Russia (left Early because of Revolution and allowed the Central to focus on western front), U.S.A. (came late because Germany was sinking U.S. ships with their U-boats [submarines] and help end the war sooner, U.K. introduced airplanes into the war along with "Aces"
When the war was over, France and U.K. wanted Germany punished and forced to pay for the Allies losses.
Tsar: the Russian Head of State prior to the Russian Revolution.
Duma: the Russian Legislative Body.
Russian Revolution: caused by government instability and corruption food shortages.
Stalin: took control of Russia after the Revolution and became the first Dictator in the U.S.S.R.
U.S.A. has the most potential for economic growth and development after WWI.
The Great Depression: the crash of the U.S. stock market in 1929, after it hit the U.S. it spread to other countries, many countries cut government spending and increased tariffs (import tax) which hurt the countries' financial situation even more, unemployment increased around the world, Governments became more involved in people's lives.
Germany: considered over punished after WWI, Germany turned to Hitler to help recover from the Great Depression.
Fascism: nation is #1, national unity, nationalistic, single charismatic leader, blind loyalty, state/nation/government is most important, see themselves as the opposite of communism.
Germany, Italy, & Spain had fascist regimes.
Hitler: Germany, Nazi, took power because of uncertainty and instability after WWI and Great Depression, great speaker, peacefully elected, improved the economy, lowed unemployment, Blamed jewish people for Germany's problems.
Mussolini: Italy, took power because of uncertainty and instability after WWI and Great Depression.
The West used appeasement when confronted with Fascist nation (Axis) aggression.
Axis: (Germany, Italy, Japan) initially very successful using methods like Blitzkrieg (speed and surprise), betrayed Russian non-aggression pact and ended up fighting on too many fronts.
Allies: (U.K. & France then U.S.A. & Russia who entered the war only after being attacked)
World History B Review
Germany Annexes Austria
Italy Invades Ethiopia
Battle of Britain

Battle of Britain:
The Axis were more effective at first by Blitzing London and seemed to be winning, but the Allies were victorious in the end.

The Desert War of WWII was fought in Northern Africa.
Axis loose in Russian Winter War and start to be driven back on their Eastern Front.
Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor: The U.S is in WWII on the side of the Allies.
The Allies take back Northern France from The Axis.
The Allies Capture Berlin and End WWII in Europe
U.S.A. drops 2 Atomic Bombs on Japan and ends WWII on all fronts.
The Country with the most casualties in WWII is Russia
The Atomic Bomb (Nuclear Weapon) was invented during WWII and is held by few countries today.
Hitler is found dead after committing suicide to avoid the consequences of his actions during WWII.
The Holocaust:
Hitler and Nazi Germany:
Blamed the Jews for many of their problems after WWI.
Their goal was to eliminate all Jews.
Most Jews died in Concentration/Death Camps.
Other targets were Gypsies and political opponents (Socialists and Communists).
Refers to the Massacre of 6 Million Jews by Hitler and Nazi Germany.
Cold War
The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan were intended to stop the spread of Communism.
U.S. threatens to invade Cuba if they do not remove the U.S.S.R.'s missiles. This nearly led to nuclear war.
Yeltzin: Organized a coup that ousted Communism from Russia.
The Command Economy in USSR was another major reason communism fell.
The collapse of Communism led to the reuniting of Germany, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the end of the Cold War.
Berlin was key to the Cold War
Eastern Europe was largely influenced/controlled by the U.S.S.R.
The West (USA, UK, France, etc) used experiences of WWI & WWII to influence their decisions during the Cold War.
Eastern Europe used peaceful reforms to get Democratic Governments.
Modern Conflicts
After WWII and the Holocaust, the UN gave the Jews that remained alive some land from Palestine in the Middle East, including Jerusalem.
This created serious conflict, because both the Jews and Muslims believed this land was their homeland and sacred to their faith.
The PLO or Palestine Liberation Organization was organized by Muslims who wanted to push the Jews out, the first leader was Yaser Arafat, the PLO is considered a terrorist organization by the US.

Afghanistan and its Muslim Rebels like Mujahedin/Osama Bin Ladin pushed the USSR out. The US aided the Muslim Rebels.
On the holiest holiday of the Jewish calendar, the Muslims attacked Israel. The consequence of US support for Israel was an Oil Embargo.
Iran takes 53 Americans Prisoner to upset relations with the US.

When Iran and Iraq go to war, the US aids Iraq with arms
.
Over a border dispute, Iraq invaded Kuwait, the US joined to protect Kuwait and our Oil supply.

42 Days later, it was over and Kuwait had its land and oil back.
Globalization
Globalization:
Is the interactions & integrations of People, Companies, and Governments.
It is Driven by Technology and Communication (cell phones and internet) and allows information to spread instantly.
Global Interdependence plays a big role.
Technology changes the world and those who live on it.
Terrorist attacks around the world
Terrorists are from all religions, nationalities, genders, etc.

Terrorists want publicity so they target things that will give them high publicity like Government Buildings, Public Buildings, Airplanes, etc.

Terrorists target most countries, highly concentrated outside of the US.
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