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Endocrine System AP Bio
Transcript of Endocrine System AP Bio
Period 3 AP Bio The endocrine system began with basic chemical regulators, which evolved to become more and more complex. Eventually, a fully developed organ system emerged. Cells communicate using signal-transduction pathways, which are activated by a chemical binding to a receptor in the plasma membrane.
These chemicals are often hormones released and moderated by the endocrine system, allowing it to direct certain cell processes to maintain homeostasis. The endocrine system helps regulate all other body processes, such as metabolism. These processes can be either simple (one-directional) or paired (two-directional). Image URLs Paired pathways consist of two simple pathways, each operating in the opposite direction of the other. One example is protein synthesis: proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in the cell, but can be degraded by a cellular machine called a proteasome. By enhancing or inhibiting one or the other pathway, the body can regulate the output of the paired system. The endocrine organ system is a complex network of various glands and organs. http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/memb/c11x5cell-signals.jpg
http://robarmstrong.typepad.com/.a/6a0133ec75f790970b0133ed5b60c3970b-800wi Hypothalamus - Regulates and produces some hormones for the pituitary glands. Communication link between the nervous system and endocrine system.
Pituitary gland - Releases many hormones such as oxytocin, Human Growth Hormone, etc.
Thyroid gland - Regulates metabolic processes
Parathyroid glands - Regulates calcium in blood
Pancreas - Releases insulin to regulate blood glucose
Adrenal glands - Heightens metabolic processes
Gonads - Testes (produce testosterone) and ovaries (produce estrogen)
Pineal Gland - Produces melatonin to regulate body rhythms Illustrative Example Insulin- Produced by the pancreas, and helps moderate blood glucose levels.
When excess blood glucose is detected, more insulin is released; however, when the levels of insulin become excessive (i.e., enough glucose has been removed from the blood) they are retracted. Example of Negative Feedback Progesterone - Helps regulate the blood clotting process, known as coagulation.
When an injury occurs in a blood vessel, factors known as platelets activate to form a clot.
As more platelets become active, they in turn cause more and more to become active as well; this leads to a domino-style cascade to form the clot. Illustrative Example Example of Positive Feedback Positive Feedback vs. Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Negative Feedback System tends to increase output.
The product of a reaction influences or increases the forward direction of the system. System tends to reduce output.
The product inhibits the reaction. Disease #1: Diabetes Type 1: The pancreas is unable to produce sufficient levels of insulin to regulate blood sugar (hormone deficiency).
Type 2: Cells are unable to effectively recognize insulin, also resulting in cellular inability to regulate blood sugar. Failure in the negative feedback system involving insulin Disease #2: Osteoporosis Estrogen deficiency both impairs bone formation and increases the rate at which bone tissue is absorbed.
Calcium deficiency also impairs bone formation, and upon detecting a lack of calcium in the blood the parathyroid gland will secrete hormones to remove even more calcium from bones. Condition involving weak or brittle bones, due to a combination of excess bone resorption and inadequate bone formation Due to the complexity and omnipresence of the endocrine system, any breakdown can result in very serious disease.