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AP Environmental Science Timeline

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Alex Luczkow

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of AP Environmental Science Timeline

8,000 BCE
AP Environmental Science Timeline
John Muir
Scottish-American conversationalist and author John Muir was a renowned advocate for the preservation of the United States' wilderness. He founded the Sierra Club, a national conservation organization, as well as worked to preserve Yosemite Valley and Sequoia National Park.
Walden by Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist writer Henry David Thoreau documented two years, two months, and two days of living in the wilderness of Concord, Massachusetts through
. His reflections promoted self-sufficiency and simple living.
Homestead Act
President Abraham Lincoln passed this Act to promote settlement into America's western frontier. This Act provided settlers 160 acres of land in exchange for a low fee and living on the provided land for five years.
Yellowstone National Park Founded
American Forestry Association Founded
Sierra Club Founded
Founded by John Muir, the Sierra Club is America's oldest and largest environmental organization. This club works towards green energy, preventing climate change, preserving public lands, and mitigating pollution.
Agricultural Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Lacey Act
The Lacey Act was passed by President McKinley. It prohibits the trade of wildlife, fish, and plants that are illegally obtained, possessed, transported or sold and also authorizes that the Secretary of the Interior may aid in restoring game and birds in the U.S. if they are on the verge of becoming extinct or rare.
Yosemite and Sequoia
National Parks Founded
First National Wildlife Refuge Established
In the Indian River Lagoon east of Sebastian, Florida lies the three acre island of Pelican Island. In 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt established it as The United States' first National Wildlife Refuge to protect the local birds from hunters.
Golden Age of
Under Theodore Roosevelt
U.S. Forest Service founded
The 1876 office of the Special Agent of the Department of Agriculture over time a through various alterations became the U.S. Forest Service in 1905. This was under President Theodore Roosevelt and Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot.
Aldo Leopold
American author, scientist, ecologist, and forester Aldo Leopold is best known for his book
A Sand County Almanac
as well as for his contributions to the movement for wildlife conservation. He was also the founder for the science of wildlife management.
Audubon Society founded
The National Aududon Society is an American, nonprofit, environmental organization. George Bird Grinnell founded the organization and based it primarily on bird conservation.
Gifford Pinchot
American forester and politician Gifford Pinchot served as the first Chief Forester of The Nationals Forest Service from 1905 to 1910. He is known for his reforms concerning the management and developing of forests, as well for advocating for of the nation's reserves.
Antiquities Act
President Theodore Roosevelt passed this act to give the President authority through executive order to redistrict the use of public land that is owned by the federal government.
Congress banes further withdraws b/c President Theodore Roosevelt waves so much land
U.S. National Park Service
Dust Bowl
Soil Conservation Service Founded
Hugh Hammond Bennett, a soil conservation pioneer, spearheaded the founding on this agency of the Department of Agriculture. It was renamed as the National Resources Conservation Service under President Clinton to compromise its broader mission to protect, improve, and conserve natural resources on private land.
Civilian Conservation Corps Founded
This New Deal public relief program operated between 1933 and 1942 gave manual labor jobs to unemployed, unmarried men between the ages of 18 and 25. These jobs centered around the development and conservation of natural resources in rural areas that were owned by the government.
Taylor Grazing Act
This federal law regulates the use of public lands as grazing land. Initially, this act placed 80,000,000 acres of public lands into grazing districts.
Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act
Commonly known as the Federal Duck Stamp, this adhesive stamp is required by the U.S. government for hunting migratory waterfowl, such as ducks and geese. 98% of the stamps sales goes to the Migratory Bird Conservation Fund.
Fish and Wildlife Service Founded
The Fish and Wildlife Service works to manage fish, wildlife, and their natural habitats. This expanded from The United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, which studied and recommended solutions to the declining fish populations.
Rachel Carson Publishes Silent Spring
The book
Silent Spring
brought environmental concerns to the public eye and eventually led to a nation wide ban on the pesticide DDT and the creation of the U.S. Environment Protection Agency. Carson's book centered on how pesticide us negatively affects the environment, and in particular, on birds.
Wilderness Act
Howard Zahniser wrote the Wilderness Act to properly define what a wilderness is and effectively led to the protection of 9.1 million acres of federal land. This Act also led to the creation of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
This Act was signed in order to protect and preserve rivers of outstanding natural, cultural, and recreational value. 156 rivers are protected through this.
By Alexa Schaefer and Alex Luczkow
Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, caught fire
On June 22, 1969, a river fire caught the attention of Time magazine, which described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays." The 1969 Cuyahoga River fire helped spur a number of water pollution control activities, such as the Clean Water Act.

NEPA (National Environmental
Policy Act)
A United States environmental law that established a U.S. national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment and also established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). As one of the most emulated statutes in the world, NEPA has been called the modern-day equivalent of an “environmental Magna Carta”

First Earth Day

Environmental Protection
Agency established
Clean Air Act established
A United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. It requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and enforce regulations to protect the public from airborne contaminants known to be hazardous to human health.

Endangered Species Act
An act passed by Richard Nixon that was designed to protect at risk species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation."

FIFRA – Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Control Act

A United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.

OPEC and Oil Embargo

An oil crisis in October 1973 that began when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (consisting of the Arab members of OPEC, plus Egypt, Syria and Tunisia) proclaimed an oil embargo. By the end of the embargo in March 1974, the price of oil had risen from $3 per barrel to nearly $12.

Roland and Molina (UCI)- CFC’s and ozone management

In 1974 Frank Sherwood Rowland, Chemistry Professor at the University of California at Irvine, and his postdoctoral associate Mario J. Molina concluded that, like N2O, the CFCs would reach the stratosphere where they would be dissociated by UV light, releasing chlorine atoms

RFCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)

This act was enacted in 1976 and it is the principal federal law in the United States governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

It is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. It created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands.

Love Canal, NY (toxic waste leaks into residential houses)

A neighborhood near Niagara Falls that became the subject of national and international attention after it was revealed in the press that the site had formerly been used to bury 21,000 tons of toxic waste by Hooker Chemical Company

Clean Water Act

It is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution. Passed in 1972, the objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters.

Bhopal, India (chemical toxic cloud)

The city attracted international attention in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history.

Alaskan Lands Act

A federal law passed under Jimmy Carter that provided for 43,585,000 acres of new national parklands in Alaska, the addition of 53,720,000 acres to the National Wildlife Refuge System, twenty-five wild and scenic rivers, and many other parts of Alaskan nature.

Three Mile Island Nuclear Accident

It was a partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on March 28, 1979 in one of the two Three Mile Island nuclear reactors in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, United States. It was the worst accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history.


A catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, which was under the direct authority of the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe.

CERCLA- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act [Super-Fund]

A United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances as well as broadly define "pollutants or contaminants."

Montreal Protocol

An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering.

Exxon Valdez

An oil spill that occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters. Prince William Sound's remote location, accessible only by helicopter, plane, or boat, made government and industry response efforts difficult and severely taxed existing plans for response.
Energy Policy Act of 1992

A United States government act that set goals, created mandates, and amended utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency in the United States.

Desert Protection Act

A federal law passed under President Bill Clinton that established the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve in the California desert.

Kyoto Protocol

An international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its Parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets.

World population hits 6 billion
IPCC Report on Climate Change
This report is the largest and most detailed summary of the climate change situation ever undertaken, produced by thousands of authors, editors, and reviewers from dozens of countries, citing over 6,000 peer-reviewed scientific studies. The main findings of the report were: "warming of the climate system is unequivocal", and "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations."

Gulf Oil Spill
Caused by the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, this oil spill is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries were reported.

Nuclear Disaster in Japan
World population hits 7 billion
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