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12 Results of World War I
Transcript of 12 Results of World War I
Revolution broke before 1918.
Sailors in N. Germany mutinied and took Kiel and triggered other revolts.
Socialists led uprisings of workers and soldiers in ports and cities.
The Kaiser abdicated (Nov 9, 1918) and fled to Holland.
Friedrich Ebert (socialist) became leader of the Republic of Germany.
Habsburg Empire (part of the Austria-Hungary Empire)
With Austria-Hungary's defeat it disintegrated.
Declared Republic in November 1918.
Austria-Hungary separated into two different states and various nationalities were proclaimed independent.
The sultanate collapsed in 1922 and was replaced by an authoritarian rule.
It left a huge area of Central and Eastern Europe in turmoil.
The Bolsheviks in Russia encouraged the growth of socialism.
Many ruling classes of Europe were afraid of the spread of revolution.
The Big 3 - Georges Clemenceau (Prime Minister of France), David Lloyd George (Prime Minister of the UK), and Woodrow Wilson (President of the USA)
Human cost of the war in Europe
Around 9 million soldiers were killed (about 15% of combatants).
Millions were permanently disabled.
Lost generation - France: 20% of men between 20 and 40 years old were killed in 1914.
Civilians died directly in the war, and also from famine and disease.
The tyne Cot cemetery (Passchendaele, Belgium)
The popular mood in Britain, France, Italy and the USA
France, Britain and Italy faced pressure from their citizens.
The general feeling, encouraged by the press, was that Germany had to pay for the trauma of the war.
Britain and France looked to the peacemakers to "hang the Kaiser" and "squeeze the German lemon until the pips squeak".
The press reported all the details of the conference and helped put pressure on the delegates.
The popular mood in Britain, France, Italy and the USA
Clemenceau's and Lloyd's political success depended on keeping their people happy.
Orlando was under pressure to get a settlement that gave Italy the territorial and economic gains it desired.
In America the population had lost interest in the Versailles settlement and Wilson's aims for Europe.
Elections took place in the US on Nov 1918 - the House of Representatives and the Senate were dominated by Republicans (opposite to Wilson).
Impact ouside of Europe (1919)
Emerged from the war as the world's leading economy.
During the war US food, raw materials and munitions were sent to Europe.
The US took over European overseas markets during the war.
Replaced Germany as the leading producer of fertilizers, dyes and chemical products.
Wilson hoped that the US would play a larger role in international affairs (collective security).
US citizens were more concerned about problems nearer to home: flu epidemic, spread of communism, racial tension.
Economic consequences in Europe
Britain - cost more than £34 billion.
By 1918 the USA had lent $2,000 millions to Britain and France.
U-boats had sunk 40% of British merchant shipping.
During the 1920s Britain and France spent about 1/3 and 1/2 of their total public expenditure on debt charges and repayments.
Britain never regained its financial predominance and lost overseas markets.
Land and industry were destroyed where the war took place (especially in France).
Belgium, Poland, Italy and Serbia were badly affected too.
Roads, railways, hospitals and houses had to be reconstructed; arable land had to be made productive again by removing unexploded shells.
The Armistice settlement and the mood of Germany
When Germany surrendered they did so believing that the Armistice would be based on Wilson's Fourteen Points.
However, the Armistice terms were very tough against Germany.
The objective was to remove Germany's ability to continue fighting and to weaken it permanently.
The Armistice ordered Germany to evacuate all occupied territory and to withdraw beyond a 10km neutral zone to the east of the Rhine.
Allied troops would occupy the west side of the Rhine, and Germany was to lose all their submarines, most of its surface fleet and air force.
Inside Germany, before the end of the war, the population had been told that the army was on the verge of victory. Therefore, when defeat came, they were shocked.
It was easy to make the population believe that the defeat had happened due to internal enemies (Jews, socialists, communists).
By the start of the Versailles conference German leaders thought they would play a part in the conference and that the terms were not going to be harsh for them.
The Allies won and met at Versailles near Paris in 1919 to try to create a peace settlement (France, Britain, USA and Italy).
The empires of Germany, Russia and Austria-Hungary had disappeared.
Russia had suffered a communist revolution.
There was a threat of revolution all over Europe.
The population faced starvation, displacement and flu epidemic.
1st revolution 1917 - overthrew Tsar Nicholas II and set Provisional Government and was to hold free elections.
2nd revolution 1917 - Bolsheviks seized power and sought to establish a dictatorship.
Best-Litovsk treaty 1917.
Civil war from 1917 - 1920.
New markets and demands for goods.
Exports nearly tripled during the war.
Opportunities of territorial expansion.
Seized Shandong and other German territories in the Pacific.
Wanted to control China.
Had fought as Allied since 1917.
Had delegates in the Versailles Conference.
Wants opposed to the ones of Japan.
Wanted control over Shandong.
Wanted release from Japanese demands.
JAPAN AND CHINA
Problems facing the Peacemakers in 1919
The Big 3 dominated the Versailles peace conference.
Japan only cared about the issues regarding the Pacific.
Vittorio Orlando (Italian Prime Minister) played a minor role and walked out of the conference when he didn't get the territorial gains that Italy had hoped for.
The first problem was the political and social instability in Europe.
Other political issues were: different aims among the peacemakers, the nature of the Armistice settlement and the German mood, and the popular sentiment in the Allied countries.
Aims of the peacemakers
Fourteen Points (Woodrow Wilson - January 8, 1918.
1. Abolition of secret diplomacy
2. Free navigation at sea for all nations in war and peace
3. Free trade between countries
4. Disarmament by all countries
5. Colonies to have a say in the own future
6. German troops to leave Russia
7. Restoration of independence of Belgium
8. France to regain Alsace and Lorraine
9. Frontier between Austria and Italy to be adjusted along the lines of nationality
10. Self-determination for the peoples of Austria-Hungary
11. Serbia to have access to the sea
12. Self-determination for the people in the Turkish empire and permanent opening of the Dardanelles
13. Poland to become and independent state with access to the sea
14. A League of Nations to be set up in order to preserve the peace.
Wilson was an idealist but believed that Germany should be punished.
Believed that self-determination would end the frustrations that caused WWI.
Also believed that the US would take the lead and promote the ideas of democracy and self-determination.
Clemenceau and Lloyd George didn't agree with Wilson's views.
Clemenceau wanted a harsh settlement against Germany (economic and territorial sanctions).
Clemenceau was keen to retain wartime links with Britain and the USA.
Lloyd George wanted a less severe settlement (Germany to lose its navy and colonies), and had to be able to recover quickly (for trade reasons and to block the spread of communism).
Japan wanted recognition of the islands it had gained during the war.
Also, to have racial equality clause in the Covenant of the League of Nations.
Territories in dispute at Versailles