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Diabetes

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Hazera Al-Khateeb

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Diabetes

I . A . B . E . T . E . S
MELLITUS
What is Diabetes mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus describes a group of
metabolic diseases
in which the person has

high blood glucose
(blood sugar).
There are
two main types
of diabetes
DIABETES
TYPE 1
DIABETES
TYPE 11
This could be either due to
inadequate insulin production,
or a
lack of cellular response
to insulin or
both.
Also known as insulin-dependant diabetes and usually occurs before the age of 40, particularly in childhood.
It is the most common type of childhood diabetes, though it makes up only 10% of all diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes affects 400,000 people in the UK, enough to fill Wembley Stadium more than 4 times over
Also known as non-insulin-dependent and adult-onset diabetes.
In England in 2010, there were approximately 3.1 million people aged 16 or over with diabetes.
By 2030, this figure is expected to rise to 4.6 million, with 90% of those affected having type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes can damage the many organs including
tissue of kidneys
,
peripheral nerves
,
eyes
(causing
blindness
) and be the cause of
loss of limbs
in the lower extremities due to
poor circulation.
In
Type 1 Diabetes
, there is a breakdown of
beta cells
in the
pancreas
which leads to
inadequate insulin secretion
. Type 1 is considered to be an
autoimmune disease
-—the body’s immune system
attacks
and
destroys
the
beta cells.
The subsequent
lack
of insulin leads to an
increase
in
blood glucose levels
.
In
Type 11 Diabetes
, the
pancreas
does
secrete insulin
, but the
target organs do not respond
to it adequately, a condition known as
insulin resistance
. The onset of insulin resistance
leads
to a condition known as
hyperglycemia.

Hyperglycemia
is a condition in which an
excessive amount
of
glucose
circulates in the
blood plasma.
DEFINE
DEFINE
It is usually defined as a level
above
about
250mg
per
100cm
. The most common cause of hyperglycemia is
diabetes
.
3
Risk factors for Diabetes
Symptoms of Diabetes
Hyperglycemia causes the main symptoms of diabetes, which include
extreme thirst (polydipsia)
and
frequent urination.
The symptoms of
Type 11 Diabetes
are not always easily detected.
This is because the symptoms are often
mild
and
develop gradually
over a
number of years.
Extreme thirst occurs as a consequence of
low water potential
of the blood. The
osmoreceptors
in the
hypothalamus
detect this change in water potential before the hypothalamus
causes urges
and
feelings of thirst.

Family history
Being of Asian or Afro Caribbean origin
Obesity
Factors that seem to bring an earlier onset of Type 11 Diabetes include:
A diet high in sugars, particularly refined sugars
Anyone with a
parent
or
sibling
with Type 1 Diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition. The presence of
certain genes
also indicates an
increased risk
of developing
Type 1 Diabetes.
The incidence of
Type 1 Diabetes
tends to increase as you
travel away
from the
equator.
People living in
Finland
and
Sardinia
have the
highest incidence
of Type 1 Diabetes.
Although Type 1 Diabetes can appear at any age, it appears at
two noticeable peaks.
The first peak occurs in
children between 4 and 7 years
old, and the second is in
children between 10 and 14 years old.
Treating Diabetes
Treating Diabetes mellitus revolves around keeping the blood concentration constant. Blood glucose can be checked in the following ways:
A biosensor
is an
analytical device
which gives an
automatic
readout of the
blood glucose concentration
from just a
tiny drop of blood.
This involves placing a
dipstick
in a
urine sample
and
observing the colour change
of the dipstick after submergence.

The colour of the dipstick is then
matched up
to a colour scale given on the chart to read off the
approximate glucose concentration.
BIOSENSERS
URINE SAMPLING
INSULIN INJECTIONS
For
Type 1 Diabetes
and in some cases for
Type 11 Diabetes
, the use of
insulin injections
, to help
maintain

blood glucose levels
, can be used as a short term
treatment
. Injections must be taken
regularly
.
This involves an
injection
of a controlled
amount
of
insulin
into the
subcutaneous fatty tissue
of certain
regions
of the body.
Dosages vary
for different individuals.
Potential breakthrough of future treatments
In the future,
stem cell technology
may advance to a level where diabetes can actually be cured, rather than be managed or controlled.
It may one day be possible to
transplant
a stem cell into a
pancreas
that has
no functioning beta cells
and persuade those stem cells to form
new beta cells
that can
secrete insulin.
This is not currently possible as adult stem cells have a
limited range
of cell types they can
differentiate
into
(not totipotent)
There are cases in experiments that show promise for the future.
In 2007
, an
experiment
was carried out where
stem cells where removed
from a few
young people
with
diabetes
, then
chemotherapy
was administered to the young people to
destroy the white blood cells
which attacked the beta cells in the pancreas.
Results where encouraging with evidence that
new white blood cells
were produced, but more research is needed before this treatment becomes common practice.
Research by Valeria, Terry & Leon
Compiled and created by Hazera
A sedentary lifestyle
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