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Somalia

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Cassie Kjorness

on 23 September 2013

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Transcript of Somalia

Somalia
Somalia
Ethiopia
Kenya
Djibouti
Indian Ocean
Gulf of Aden
Socioeconomic and Cultural Background
Sunni Muslim
44% Under 14
49% 5-14 Child labor
85% Somali and 15% Non-Somali and Bantu which were slaves Arabians brought from southwestern Africa
Crisis Timeline
Mogadishu
Works Cited
-"Al-Shabaab." Counterterrorism 2013 Calendar. National Counterterrorism Center, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.nctc.gov/site/groups/al_shabaab.html>.
-"Al-Shabaab." Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations, 9 July 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.cfr.org/somalia/al-shabaab/p18650>.
-British Broadcasting Corporation. "Somalia Profile." BBC News. BBC, 01 Aug. 2013.
Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094632>.
-Bruton, Browyn. "In the Quicksands of Somalia." Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations, Nov.-Dec. 2009. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65462/bronwyn-bruton/in-the-quicksands-of-somalia>.
-"EU Praises Somali Government Progress." VOA. Voice of America, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.voanews.com/content/eu-praises-somali-government-progress/1749266.html>.
-Military Factory. "Battle of Mogadishu." Military Factory. Military Factory, 2013. Web. 12 Sept. 2013. <http://www.militaryfactory.com/battles/battle_of_mogadishu.asp>.
-“Somalia.” The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency, 22 Aug. 2013. Web.
06 Sept. 2013.
<https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html>.
-"Somalia: Forced Evictions in Mogadishu Put Thousands of Displaced at Even Greater Risk." Amnesty International. Amnesty International, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/somalia-forced-evictions-mogadishu-put-thousands-displaced-even-greater-risk-2013-09-13>.
-"SOMALIA: President Calls Attack on Turkish Allies “An Act of Cowardly Desperation”." Horseed Media. Horseed Media News Desk, 28 July 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://horseedmedia.net/2013/07/28/somalia-president-calls-attack-on-turkish-allies-an-act-of-cowardly-desperation/>.
-"Somalia: Security Council Welcomes New UN Mission, Encourages Support for Somali-led Development Plan." UN News Centre. United Nations, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2013. <http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=45851#.UjWd6BYTG5Q>.
Crisis
-government doesn't have much power or unity
-Al-Shabab
-humanitarian crisis
Problems
Al-Shabab
-powerful terrorist group backed by al-Qa'ida
-occupying portions of Somalia still
-bombings and shootings
-Somalia has claimed land in Djibouti, Kenya, and Ethiopia where some Somali live
-18 US servicemen killed in 1993 Battle of Mogadishu
-1995 150 UN casualties
Governmental Power
-government is relatively weak but is getting stronger
-can't expel Al-Shabab
-drought, famine, polio, piracy, and more can't be solved easily
-if any massive crisis emerges, anarchy will likely occur
Anti-western
-any fast action to help Somalia could possibly make the crisis worse
-US supported Ethiopian forces in Somalia which only angered Somalians strengthened the opposition
-terrorism could be combated in Somalia but international intervention is not favored
Means
-Somalia needs money
-EU praised Somalia for recent governmental stability and is willing to donate
Actions Taken By Governments and Groups
Current Objectives to Solving Crisis
Allies and Political Ties
Impact on World and Region
History of Somalia
-colonies of Great Britain and Italy from 1887-1960= never united
-1991 anarchy after President Barre's regime was defeated by opposing clans starts 20 year civil war
-1993 Battle of Mogadishu from "Black Hawk Down" 100s of Somalis and 18 US servicemen die
-always changing government has never strong enough to resolve famine, piracy, civil war, and rebel groups
-US- proxy war, funded African Union (AMISOM) forces fighting Al-Shabab and droning Al-Shabab and al-Qa'ida
-AMISOM- fought Al-Shabab along with Somalia government
-Turkey- helped build hospitals and schools
-Al-Shabab- many bombings on government and Turks
-UN- sent food to Somalia during famines
-Somalian government- has relatively stable government
Allies and Support
Al-Shabab
-insurgency group that began in 2006 with the Islamic Courts
-fight government and its allies for complete power with al-Qa'ida backing
-enforce Sharia law, no un-Islamic activities, in controlled areas
-stone and amputate as punishment
-child soldiers
-leader is Ahmed Abdi Godane
President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
-Somalia's continuity- same president and prime minister for a year and a working parliament
-UN considering new UNSOM mission
-EU asking Mogadishu leaders to work out differences with southern and central Somalian leaders and possibly donating money
-Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti to a point
-US
-NATO and UN
-Turkey
-EU
-Somalia is by Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean making it an important area for trade between India and the Middle East
-Many refugees have escaped to Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti
-Exports bananas, livestock, fish, and scrap metal
-Terrorists could attack region and world from Somalia
2004
2006
2009
2008
2000
1991
Another government fails to unite clans
Islamic Courts Union take over southern Somalia and Mogadishu, which Ethiopia and government gain back
Al-Shabab captures most of southern Somalia
AMISOM replaces Ethiopian troops while Al-Shabab captures major cities including Mogadishu and parliament elects a new president
Opposing clans overthrow President Barre's regime
New government doesn't achieve unity
2011
Al-Shabab loses major cities to AMISOM and Kenyan forces and a new president is elected
2012
Al-Shabab loses control in more cities
2013
US recognizes government with a new president and prime minister
Prime Minister Abdi Farah Shirdon Saaid
Full transcript