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Animal Farm

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Tabitha Care

on 28 May 2010

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Transcript of Animal Farm

Animal Farm by George Orwell How is it...

a Fable - a fable is a story with made up characters and the action of the characters, usually animals, conveys a moral lesson.

a Satire - a satire is a literary composition that uses irony, ridicule, and/or sarcasm.

an Allegory - an allegory is a symbolic narrative or fable. George Orwell He was a British author who was very intelligent and witty.

A Clergyman's Daughter
Animal Farm
Burmese Days
Coming up for Air
Down and Out in Paris and London
Keep the Aspidistra Flying

Homage to Catalonia
The Road to Wigan Pier

(1903-1940) The Russian Revolution of 1917 Characters and Their Parallels Old Major: the old, wise, and prized pig. He originally came up with the idea of an animal rebellion at the farm. Old Major is paralleled to Karl Marx who founded Marxism or scientific socialism. He also wrote the "Communist Manifesto." George Orwell symbolizes Karl Marx and the idea of Marxism with Old major because he they both represent the ideas behind the start of a movement. Mr. Jones: He is the owner of the farm where the rebellion starts. He treats his animals horribly, and he is a drunkard. Jones symbolizes Czar Nicholas II who was the supreme ruler before the revolution in Russia in 1917. Mr. Jones was forced off his farm by the animals just like Czar Nicholas II was removed from power by the Bolsheviks. Napoleon: He is one of the pigs on the farm who disagrees with Snowball all the time. He uses fear and ruthlessness to get the other animals to do what he wants. Napoleon symbolizes Joseph Stalin because Stalin challenged many of the decisions of Trotsky. Stalin was also very ruthless. He ordered the killings of many former Tsarist officers in the Red Army and counter-revolutionaries.He also burned villages in order to intimidate the peasants into submission and to discourage bandit raids on food shipments. Snowball: He is a pig on the farm who tries to help the animals, and he comes up with ways to read, write, teach the other animals, and build things to make their work easier. However, he still likes the power and dislikes Napoleon. Snowball symbolizes Leon Trotsky who was a leader during the Russian Revolution in 1917. He also lead the Red Army which Stalin tried attacking. Trotsky talked about revolutions and tried to stir up people to revolt and take action. Snowball also did this, and tried to accomplish things that would keep the animals revolt going even sending pigeons to other farms to stir up other revolts. Squealer: He is a pig on the farm who is very minipulative when he speaks. He tricks the animals into thinking something is good when really it is just benefiting the pigs. Squealer is paralleled to Pravda which was the Russian newspaper of the Soviet Communist Party. It used propaganda to spread the communist beliefs to the people. Squealer does the same thing and convinces the animals of a lot of things since they can't really think for their themselves. Moses: He is a raven who spreads lies to trick the animals on the farm, and he was Mr. Jones' spoiled pet. The other animals thought of him as a spy. The major lie he spread was of Sugarcandy Mountain which was supposedly where animals go when they die. Moses is symbolizes the Russian Orthodox Church because communism exploited religion to pacify the oppressed, and so they would work without complaining. Napoleon' Dogs: Napoleon took them when they were puppies and trained them to obey him and to be attack dogs. The dogs are paralleled to the Secret Police during the Russian Rvolution. The Secret Police were not really police, but just men that were loyal to and supported Stalin. They were forcful and vicious just like Stalin. Boxer: He is a cart horse who is very strong. Boxer is a hard and loyal worker, and he is quick to help. However, he is slow-witted and therefore has little ability to make decisions independently. Boxer is paralleled to the dedicated and tricked supporters during the Russian Revolution who were naive in trusting the "good intensions" of the political leaders. They also had an inability to recognize even the most blatant forms of political corruption. Mollie: She is a vain cart horse who craves the attention of humans and loves being groomed and pampered. She didn't like the new way on animal farm because she missed wearing ribbons and eating sugar cubes. Mollie symbolizes the bourgeoisie that fled from Russia a few years after the Russian Revolution started. Benjamin: He is a goat, and he is the oldest animal on the farm. He never chooses a side when debates happen between Napoleon and Snowball. Benjamin believes things will be just as unpleasant no matter who is in charge or not. He symbolizes the Russian sceptics and outsiders who do not believe either side is good. Mr. Pilkington: He is another neighboring farmer, but of Foxwood who is easygoing. He is the bitter enemy of Mr. Fredricks. Mr. Pilkington parallels Winston Churchill and the capitalist governments of England, and the United States. Mr. Frederick: He is a neighboring farmer of Pinchfield who is tough and shrewd. Mr. Frederick parallels Adolf Hitler, the ruler of Nazi Germany .
The Russian Revolution of 1917 centers around two primary events: the February Revolution and the October Revolution.

The February Revolution removed Tsar Nicholas II from power. It started because of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), during a time when the tsar was away from the capital visiting troops on the World War I front. Though the February Revolution was a popular uprising, it did not necessarily express the wishes of the majority of the Russian population, as the event was primarily limited to the city of Petrograd.

The October Revolution (also called the Bolshevik Revolution) overturned the interim provisional government and established the Soviet Union. It was a much more deliberate event that was orchestrated by a small group of people called the Bolsheviks. They were generally viewed as an extremist group and had very little popular support when they began serious efforts in April 1917. By October, the Bolsheviks’ popular base was much larger since they had built up a majority of support within Petrograd and other urban centers. After October, the Bolsheviks realized that they could not maintain power in an election-based system without sharing power with other parties which would compromise their principles. As a result, they formally abandoned the democratic process in January 1918 and declared themselves the representatives of a dictatorship of the proletariat. In response, the Russian Civil War broke out in the summer of that year and would last well into 1920.

1) Mr. Jones is the owner of Manor Farm.
2) Mr. Jones is a drunk and does not treat his animals well.
3) Old Major has all of the animals gather together so he can tell them about his "Beasts of England" dream and to introduce all the ideas of a rebellion to them.
4) Their lives on Manor Farm are tough, slave-like, and labor-driven.
5) Old Major believed the animals should stay united, and he told them not to trust men.
6) The following are Old Major's ideals for after the rebellion:
- Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
- Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
- No animal must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade.
- All habits of man are evil.
- No animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind.
- No animal must ever kill any other animal.
- All animals are equal.
7) In the "Beasts of England" song:
- Man will be overthrown by beasts.
- There will be no more rings in their noses.
- No harnesses, bits, spurs, or whips.
- All fields and crops will be plentiful and theirs.
8) The pigs and the dogs are the cleverest of all the animals.
9) The stupidest of all the animals are the sheep and Mollie the cart horse.
10) The uproar of all the animals singing "Beasts of England" woke up Jones, so he fired 6 shots from his gun out into the yard and they hit the barn.
1) Old Major dies and three main pigs emerge. They are Snowball, Napoleon, and Squealer.
2) The pigs formulate the teachings of Old Mojor into a system of thought called Animalism.
3) The pigs encountered problems when they began to discuss the coming rebellion because some of the animals are not smart enough to think things out for themselves, some didn't care, and some still felt they should be loyal to Jones.
4) Moses, the Raven, who is Mr. Jones' special pet, tells lies of Sugarcandy Mountain. The animals don't like him because he tells lies and does no work.
5) Napoleon and Snowball emerge as the leaders on the farm.
6) The Rebellion started because the men didn't feed the animals and Jones got drunk at a bar. When he came home he just fell asleep, so the animals were still not fed. The animals had enough, and one of the cows broke in the door where the food was kept. The animals drove the men and Jones off the farm.
7) The animals destroyed all the "slave" objects of their labor and the rest of the things that reminded them of Jones in a rubbish fire that was already burning.
8) Other than the beer barrel nothing was destroyed in the farm house, and it was left as a museum. No animal was to live in it.
9) During the past 3 months the pigs taught themselves to read and write.
10) Napoleon and Snowball formulated the 7 Commandments:
- Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
- Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
- No animal shall wear clothes.
- No animal shall sleep in a bed.
- No animal shall drink alcohol.
- No animal shall kill any other animal.
- All animals are equal. 1) The animals worked hard and well together ont eh farm and in the fields. They worked better then Jones' men did. Everyone worked according to their capacity.
2) Boxer is the most admired, and he is valued by the pigs because of his great strength.
3) The pigs did not do much work. They mainly directed and supervised. Mollie and the cat were lazy. Boxer and Clover were very devoted and useful.
4) Snowball made a green flag that has a white horn and hoof on it. This represents the future Republic of the Animals which would arise when the human race owuld be finally overthrown.
5) Napoleon and Snowball start to disagree on everything. This goes against Old Major's idea of staying united.
6) By Autumn almost every animal on the farm was literate in some degree.
7) The sheep chanting "four legs good, two legs bad" is a short Maxim for the first commandment. Also, the pigs have the sheep say this, so it confuses and throws off the other animals.
8) Napoleon took puppies from two mother dogs, and he said he would make himself responsible for their education.
9) The apples and the milk are to be misxed into the pigs food alone. This is important because the pigs are getting better treatment which goes against "all animals are equal."
10) Squealer uses trickery to assure the other animals that it is for the pigs health to have the milk and apples mixed into their food only, so the pigs are better at helping them. 1) Napoleon and Snowball used pigeons to spread the news of the rebellion and to teach the tune of "Beasts of England" to neighboring farms.
2) The owners of the neighboring farms, Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick, were sympathetic to Jones about the rebellion on his farm, but they didn't do anything to help. They were also frightened of a rebellion and got angry at any singing they heard of "Beasts of England" by their animals.
3) Jones came with his men and half a dozen other men from neighboring farms to attack Animal Farm.
4) Snowball learned battle techniques from a book about Julius Caesar's campaigns.
5) During this Battle of Cowshed, Snowball gave the sound of retreat to lead the men in disorder after the animals and to catch them off guard.
6) Boxer kicked a stable-lad in the head with his hind leg, and he felt very bad about this. He thought he killed him, and he said he didn't mean to do it.
7) Boxer told Snowball, "I have no wish to take life, not even human life." This makes Boxer seem human and lovable.
8)Snowball tells Boxer, "War is war. The only good human is a dead one." This reveals Snowballs ruthlessness. However, the stable-lad was just unconcious not dead.
9) During the Battle of Cowshed Mollie was in her stall with her head buried among the hay.
10) To celebrate their victory the animals used human rituals:
- They raised their flag and sang "Beasts of England"
- They gave the one sheep that died a funeral.
- They created military decorations- "Animal Hero, First Class" and "Animal Hero, Second Class."
11) The animals also decided to use Jones' gun that was left behind to fire it off twice a year- once on October 12, the anniversary of the Battle of Cowshed; and once on Midsummer Day, the anniversary of the Rebellion.
1) Mollie betrayed the ideals of Animal Farm when she allowed a human from a neighboring farm pet her, and she has ribbons and lumps of sugar hidden in her stall. Mollie loses her freedom because of this, so she runs away.
2) There is now a power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball since they always disagree. This represents the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky.
3) Snowball came up with an idea to build a windmill to power things on the farm.
4) Debates were fought over this, and the animals divided into two factions: one with the slogan "Vote for Snowball and the three day week" and the other with the slogan "Vote for Napoleon and the full manger." Benjamin, the donkey, however, said that "life would go on as it had always gone on- that is, badly."
5) A dispute emerged which was about the defense of the farm. Napoleon wanted to make firearms and train with them. Snowball said they should send more pigeons out to stir up more rebellions.
6) The animals agreed with whom ever was talking at the time during those debates since they are not smart enough to think for themselves.
7) There was a meeting about the windmill, and Snowball was winning over the other animals, so Napoleon sicked his nine dogs on him. They chased him off the farm. Now the commandment "All animals are equal" no longer applies.
8) Changes are made after Snowball is ousted: Napoleon now wants to build the windmill; No more Sunday morning meetings or debates; there is a committee of pigs that he would preside over.
9) Squealer convinced the animals that napoleon was actually helping them by taking on the heavy responsibility of leading and protecting them from making their own bad decisions.
10) Squealer always uses the phrase "Surly, commrades, you do not want Jones back" to stop any arguments or questions.
11) Boxer now says "I will work harder" and "Napoleon is always right."
1) It is ironic that the animals now work on Sunday because it goes against how they originally decided at the first meeting to conduct themselves.
2) The animals had to work on Sundays or their rations of food would be cut.
3) Building of the windmill presented some some problems: they had to make smaller stones out of heavy boulders; they had to drag those big boulders; and they are lacking supplies.
4) Without Boxer the windmill would have been impossible to build.
5) The pigs hardly helped, and they just watched over the building of the windmill. At that point, they act better or above the "middle class" work.
6) They started trading with criminals or other farms because Napoleon says it would help to get the necessities to build the windmill. This goes against Old Major saying they should not trade especially with humans.
7) Napoleon convinces the hens to give up their eggs for sale since they can't help much to build the windmill.
8) The pigs had picked up the habit of living in the farmhouse and sleeping in the beds which bothers Clover.
9) The pigs have changed the commandment "No animal shall sleep in a bed" by adding "without sheets" at the end.
10) Snowball is used as a scapegoat when Squealer blames Snowball for circulating lies, and after the big storm goes through Napoleon blames Snowball for destroying the windmill. 1) The strongest motivation for completing the rebuilding of the windmill to the animals was that humans would triumph and rejoice if they did not finish the mindmill.
2) Napoleon had the sheep tell Mr. Whymper that the rations had been increased. When he made an inspection of the farm he thought the food bins were completely full, however, the bins were filled with sand nearly to the brims then covered with food, so Mr. Whymper was tricked. He told the other men what he saw, so the thought too the conditions on Animal Farm were better than they really were.
3) The hens had to sell their eggs because it was a harsh winter and the crops were bad, and the food rations were dratically reduced.
4) The hens were very upset that they had to sell their eggs, so they protested by laying their eggs on the rafters. Then the eggs would fall and smash to pieces
5) Napoleon declared that the hens didn't get food and if any animal gave food to the hens they would be punished by death. The hens only lasted five days.
6) Meanwhile, Napoleon was contemplating who he wanted to sell the pile of timbers to, either Mr. Pilkington or Mr. Frederick.
7) It was revealed that Snowball was hiding on one of the neighboring farms, and that he comes onto Animal Farm at night and causes mischief. It was also said that Snowball sold himself to Mr. Pilkington to help lead an attack on Animal Farm, and he was originally in league with Jones from the very start.
8) Boxer does not believe that Snowball was a traitor, but this was dangerous to say out loud because a couple days days later Napoleon had his dogs attack some of the animals including Boxer. Those animals were suppose to be secret agents of Snowball's. Boxer, however, kicked one dog that attacked him aand pinned him to the ground.
9) Boxer attributed the slaughter of fellow animals to fault in themselves and believed the solution was to work harder. He decided to get up and hour earlier now.
10) Squealer explained that "Beasts of England" was no longer needed because it was a song of the Rebellion which had already been accomplished. It also expressed their longing for a better society which had already been established. Hence, it had no longer any purpose.
11) The new song is completely different from "Beasts of England." It states "Animal Farm, Animal Farm, Never through me shalt thou come to harm." 1)The animals didn't remember right away the commandment about an animal killing another animal because of the terror of the executions of fellow animals. They felt the killings didn't "square" or fall under that commandment.
2) The sixth commendment was changed to "No animal shall kill any other animal without cause."
3) The animals were told that Snowball never recieved the medal "Animal Hero, First Class" for at the Battle of Cowshed.
4) The animals feared and hated Mr. Frederick because there was a rumor that he was going to attack the farm and that he practiced horrible cruelties on his animals.
5) Mr. Frederick did attack the farm. He brought fifteen men who had half a dozen guns between them. The animals were losing at first and were getting badly wounded. Then the men blew the windmill up! The animals were filled with rage, so they fought the men off the farm. Afterwards, Squealer assured them that even though the windmill got blown up it was still their victory.
6) Boxer started to feel old, and he saw ahead of himthe heavy labor of rebuilding the windmill. He was the first animal to begin to feel old.
7) Now the pigs adopted the bad habit of drinking which went against the commandment that "No animal shall drink alcohol."
8) The pigs and dogs got drunk the one night, and Napoleon had a hangover the next day. Squealer announced that Napoleon was dying, but after a couple of days he was better.
9) There was an area of a field that was suppose to be for the retired animals to grazing on, but Napoleon decided to plough it up to plant and grow barley.
10) The one night Squealer fell off a ladder while changing the fifth commandment which states "No animal shall drink alcohol." This is ironic because he was drunk and thats why he fell off the ladder.
11) Benjamin noticed Squealer changing the commandment and knew what was going on, but he said nothinglike always. A few days later Muriel noticed that another one of the commandments was different. The fifth commandment now said "No animal shall drink alcohol to excess." 1) None of the animals ever retired and none of them will ever be allowed to retire.
2) The farm became prosperous after some years, and a windmill finally got completed. However it was not used for electricity.
3) The luxuries of which Snowball had once talked about, the stalls with electric light, hot and cold water, and the three day week, was no longer talked about. Napoleon denounced such ideas contrary to the spirit of Animalism and said true happiness lay in working hard and living frugally.
4) According to Benjamin hunger, hardship, and disappointment is the unalterable law of life.
5) Even though the animals living condtions did not improve, they still felt proud that they were the only farm in all of England that was completely owned and operated by animals.
6) At the beginning of chapter 10 the animals still had Old Major's hope for the conditions from the "Beasts of England" song. However, the pigs learned to walk on their hind legs and Squealer taught the sheep to say "Four legs good, two legs better" which destroyed that hope.
7) After the new choice of walking on two legs, a new and now the only commandment was discovered by Benjamin and Clover. It stated, "All animals are equal, But some animals are more equal than others."
8) There was a dinner meeting between the pigs and neighboring farmers. During that dinner there was a quarrel over two aces played during a "friendly" card game. One played by a pig and the other by a man. This stands for the Cold War.
9) The irony is that during that quarrel the other animals were watching through a window, but they could not tell the difference between the pigs and the men.
10) In the end it does not matter if a certain side is better than the other. Both the pigs and the men try to deceive each other. Orwell's attitude toward both Communism and Capitalism is reflected by the relationship between the pigs and the men. Both sides are like men in power, and men in power are always going to be corrupt. 1) Boxer worked harder so he can retire when he turned twelve. A large pasture was to be turned into a grazing ground for the retired animals. However, no animals ever retired.
2) Squealer used the euphemism "readjustment" instead of reduction in talking about their food rations to convince the animals that they were not really recieving less food than they had under Jones.
3) The number of pigs increased because the four sows gave birth to 31 piglets in all. All of which were spawned by Napoleon.
4) The chickens, however, decreased in number because they have to sell most of their eggs and cannot repopulate fast enough.
5) Only the young pigs got educated, and they are not suppose to play with the other animals.
6) The pigs can wear green ribbons on their tails on Sundays. This represents a heirarchy like the pigs are more important than the other animals.
7) The animals started to do Spontaneous Demonstrations which were celebrations that helped the animals to remember that they are doing better now because they're free and not slaves under Jones.
8) Napoleon was the only candidate in the election of the Republic on the farm. He was also unanimously elected.
9) Boxer thought he was being taken to an animal hospital, but he got taken to a glue factory. Benjamin tried to run and tell the others what the horse-drawn van said on the side of it to help save Boxer.
10) The animals (except Benjamin) accepted the circumstances of Boxer's death because Squealer told them that it was really the vet hospital that had taken Boxer. It was just that the vet hospital had not yet painted over the words from the horse slaughterer that had it before the vet.
11) Napoleon used Boxer's death to further promote the pigs' aims by telling the animals they should all adopt Boxer's maxims of "I will work harder" and "Napoleon is always right."
12) The pigs also used the money they got from Boxer's slaughtering to buy a case of whiskey. 5 Thinking Questions: 1) How was the power struggle between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky shown through Napoleon and Snowball's relationship? 2) What are the many ways Napoleon and the other pigs used Snowball as their personal scapegoat? 3) What is the connection between the pigs getting drunk and Squealer falling off the ladder? 4) How do the pigs and Napoleon use Boxer's death to further promote their aims and bad habits? 5) How does the ending reveal Orwell's attitude toward both Communism and Capitalism? Chapter One: Chapter Two: Chapter Three: Chapter Four: Chapter Five: Chapter Six: Chapter Seven: Chapter Eight: Chapter Nine: Chapter Ten:
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