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The Building of Greece (5.1, 5.2)
Transcript of The Building of Greece (5.1, 5.2)
Where did you choose to live? Sparta or Athens? Why?
Early Civilizations Near Mediterranean
1. We will be able to describe the civilizations that existed in the Mediterranean Sea before and during the rise of Greece.
2. We will be able to identify the different political systems that developed in the Greek city-states.
3. We will be able to discuss how Athenian and Spartan differed from one another..
4. We will be able to Analyze the battles and results of the Persian War.
Historians consider the Mycenaeans the first Greeks
They spoke a form of the Greek language.
Mycenaeans were more war-like
1200 BC Trojan War in Homer’s Iliad (Trojan Horse)
Mycenaeans Fail and Dorians (1200 – 800 BC) Emerge
"Dark Ages"-Written Language, Trade, Cities-Decrease
History passed orally
Greatest Example-Homer's "Illiad"
Myths for Greek Mythology Emerge
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
Many theories exist on why the Mycenaeans failed, but some include:
Drought and Famine
Invasion by the “Sea Peoples”
Collapse of Trade
The Greek Dark Ages (1200 – 800 BC)
Decrease in population
Towns and cities were abandoned
Writing and Trade ceased
A group of people called the Dorians moved to the area
No written record exists from 1150 to 750 BC
History passed down through spoken word
Homer was the greatest story teller
"Illiad" greatest example
Myths continue to develop during this time for Greek Mythology
The Emergence of Greek City-States
Geography of Greece
Greece is mountainous!
Greek communities often times developed independently because of the mountains, thus they were diverse
As a result, they had their own government, laws, and customs.
Surrounded by seas=became skilled sailors
Polis- City State
Each polis was unique, and developed separately, ruled itself.
Acropolis- a walled “high area” containing fortifications and temples and located in the center of a polis-met for politics
Agora- an open area that served as a meeting place & market in early Greek city-states-met at for politics
The two major city-states were Athens and Sparta. City-states and all of Greece are not united!
Greek Polis Take Hold
Around 800 BC, Greece stabilized!
Athens was the first democracy.
Democracy: type of government where people vote.
Athens was a direct democracy where people vote on everything. However, only citizens could vote and only those at the top could hold office
Breakdown of Athenian Social Structure
Building a Democracy
Draco developed a legal code (621 BC)
Idea that all Athenians rich and poor, were equal
punished very harshly
with property and Athens born
Mostly sons of wealthy families
From grammar, math, history, to music, and athletic activities
Helped prepare to defend Athens
Girls did not attend school, but learned at home to maintain a household
Sparta Builds a Military State
Sparta was an oligarchy: rule by the few!
Sparta was ruled by two kings
Sparta Dominates Messenians 725 BC
Messenians became helots that worked the fields
Helots outnumbered Spartans 7 to 1! This was the main reason for the strict war-like society…
Breakdown of Spartan Social Structure
Citizens descended from original inhabitants
Noncitizens who were free, worked in commerce and industry
Helots, were a little better than slaves
Sparta was an isolated city-state that was culturally and politically different from Athens.
Great military, army feared by other nations (600 to 371 BC Most powerful army in Greece)
Encouraged military and strength over arts like Athens
"Come back with your shield or on it."
what does this mean?
Now in the Iron Age (1200 BC-700AD)
Easier to make tools but also for warfare
Iron Changes Warfare
Cheaper and harder than bronze
Common man could afford to have own weapons and fight
Greek Military: Phalanx
Soldiers get in a tight box. They each have a large shield and a 9 foot long spear.
Was used in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. The Athenians defeated the Persians with this tactic.
Certain Greek city-states in Ionia have come under Persian rule. Growing tensions erupt into a revolt. The revolt leads to a war of epic proportions between Greece and Persia.
Where is Persia?
The Beginnings of the Persian War (490 – 479 BC)
The cause of the Persian Wars started with the Ionian Revolt in started the war in 499 BC. Athens sent troops to support the cause!
The Persians put down the revolt easily, but the actions of Athens angered King Darius.
It took several years to get the full Persian army gathered, but he sent them to Greece in the year of 490 BC to attack...
A Revolt leads to War: The Persian Wars
Persia wants all of Greece in their possession.
The Major Battles of the Persian War
Battle of Marathon (490 BC)
Persians landed on the shores at Marathon, and the Greeks heard of this and rushed to meet the Persians.
Greeks used the military tactic, the phalanx.
Victory for Greeks!
Significance of Marathon:
Greeks fight off a clearly more powerful enemy, and after this Greece becomes a dominant power in the ancient world.
(480 BC) – Victory for Persians
Delayed by 300 Spartans (7000 Greeks overall)
Athens captured & burned
Does unite Greece to fight
Battle of Thermopylae
Greeks tricks Xerxes into leading his ships into the narrow straight of Salamis. Persian ships are to big and are slow to maneuver.
Persians defeated by Athenian navy
Battle of Salamis (480 BC)
Battle of Plataea (479 BC)
Persian army defeated at Plataea
Persia wasn’t as much of a threat to the Greeks, but the Delian League was created just as a safe-guard.
Delian League was a band of city-states that sought to maintain defense against Persia.
Athens starts growing more powerful because it was the lead city-state in the league.
Athens begins to conquer neighboring city-states
Treasury money used to rebuild Athens, at the other city-states displeasure.
30 years peace, agreement made by all Greek city-states. (This doesn’t last long!)
Aftermath of the Persian War--Western Civilization and Democracy is Saved!!!!!!
The Minoans (3200-1250 BC)
Lived in Crete
Culture from language, religion, art, politics, and literature will spread to Greece and Western Civilization
The Phoenicians (1200-539 BC)
Great sailors from modern Lebanon in the Middle East
Sailed around African continent from the Red Sea and back to Mediterranean (would take another 2k years to happen)
Trading centers for famous red dye to papyrus
Famous Contribution: The Alphabet
Needed writing system for trade
Adopted by Greeks and other societies--simple alphabet that was easier to learn
The Persian Empire (550-330 BC)
Great empire stretched from India to Egypt
Leaders Cyrus and Darius promoted tolerance when taking over other place=stability
Great Royal Road that connected empire and promoted trade--along with coins
Popular religion-Zoroastrianism-Provides similar framework as Christianity
Earth is battle ground for good and bad