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earth architecture

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Marwa Salam

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of earth architecture

RAMMED EARTH HOUSE WHAT ? is the architectural practice of using earth against building walls for external thermal mass, to reduce heat loss, and to easily maintain a steady indoor air temperature. 1. The soils used are typically subsoil low in clay (between 5% and 15%), the topsoil being retained for agricultural use.

2. Where soil excavated in preparing the building's foundation can be used, the cost and energy consumption for transportation are minimal.

3. wood or bamboo reinforcement can prevent failure caused by earthquakes or heavy storms. is a technique for building walls using the raw materials of earth, chalk, lime and gravel. It is an ancient building method that has seen a revival in recent years as people seek more sustainable building materials and natural building methods HISTORY -5000 - 2000 BC Has been seen in neolithic archaeological sites of yangshao & longshan cultures along the yellow river in CHINA .

The Great Wall of China was mainly built from rammed earth In the 1800s rammed earth was popularized in usa through the book rural econoeny by s.w Johnson . the method was used to construct the BOROUGH HOUSE PLANTAIONS and the CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS in Carolina . The period from the 1920s through the 1940s was active for studies of rammed-earth construction in the US. In 1945 Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina published the results of their rammed-earth research in a pamphlet called "Rammed Earth Building Construction" CHARACTERISTICS PROs & CONs TECHNIQUE The patches of damage

The surface shows regular horizontal lines from the wooden form-work

subtler horizontal strata from successive layers of compacted earth.

Untouched, rammed-earth walls have the colour and texture of natural earth.

Moisture-impermeable finishes, such as cement render, are avoided

Well-cured walls accept nails and screws easily. urface detail TRUCTURAL CONOMICAL NVIRONMENTAL The compressive strength of rammed earth can be up to 4.3 MPa ,This is less than that of concrete.

Properly built rammed earth can withstand loads for thousands of years. Soil is a widely available, low-cost and sustainable resource

Rammed-earth construction without mechanical tools can be very time-consuming; however, with a mechanical tamper and prefabricated form-work.

. Unskilled labour can do most of the necessary work, and today more than 30 percent of the world's population uses earth as a building material.

Resolve problems with homelessness caused by otherwise high building costs. High thermal mass

Rammed earth can effectively control humidity [between 40% and 60%]

It has low embodied energy and generate very little waste

Rammed-earth buildings reduce the need for lumber MATERIALS EQUIPMENTS Mechanical tamper

Prefabricated form-work sand
water [about 10% by weight]

Portland cement [about 3-6% by volume] External walls Internal walls Wall is protected from weathering

Exposed thermal mass internally

Loss of characteristic appearance externally External appearance maintained

Loss of available thermal mass EARTH SHELTERED HOUSE WHAT ? HISTORY CHARACTERISTICS PROs & CONs TECHNIQUE Earth-sheltered houses date back thousands of years.

Surviving structures from past eras can be found in Scotland, France and Iceland, among other places. These structures used mounds of earth, called berms, to protect the house from exposure to the elements.

Other structures took advantage of caves or other natural formations, It is less susceptible to the impact of extreme outdoor air temperatures .

Because earth covers part or all of their exterior, earth-sheltered houses require less outside maintenance, such as painting and cleaning gutters.

Constructing a house that is dug into the earth or surrounded by earth builds in some natural soundproofing.

It can cost less to insure because their design offers extra protection against high winds, hailstorms, and natural disasters such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Downsides are the initial cost of construction , which may be up to 20% higher

The level of care required to avoid moisture problems, during both the construction and the life of the house.

Poor indoor air quality can occur if an earth shelter has not been properly designed.

Earth sheltering often requires heavier construction . EARTH
ARCHITECTURE THE SITE : Soil and ground water conditions will determine structural and waterproofing requirements.

Special care should be taken during preliminary site preparation to ensure the ground is not disturbed when permafrost is present.

The topography of the site — lay of the land will affect wind flow and drainage patterns.

Flat site is the most demanding THE DESIGN : There are two basic types of earth-sheltered housing according to certain characteristics such as the:
soils of your site
the regional climate
design preferences EARTH SHELTERED H. Underground :
Below grade berm structure :
Above grade From these two basic types, three general designs have been developed. They are the: Atrium or courtyard Penetration plan Elevation plan [ (a glass south-facing entry].) CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS The construction materials for each type of structure will vary, depending on characteristics of :
the site

Materials must provide a good surface for waterproofing and insulation . CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS CONSTRUCTIONAL TREATMENTS Waterproofing Insulation There are two types of insulation used in earth shelter construction.
The first is close-celled extruded polystyrene sheets.
The second type of insulation is a spray on foam. Keep in mind these three ways to reduce the risk of water damage in your house :

1/ choose the site carefully

2/ plan the drainage both at and below the surface of the house

3/ waterproof the house There are several waterproofing systems currently in use, including:

Plastic sheets
Bentonite. is the most common choice
Fire resistant. Concrete: Concrete: Masonry: Wood: Steel: can be used for walls that will receive vertical or lateral pressure

It is reinforced with steel bars that are put in the core of the masonry in places of high stress,

generally costs less than cast-in-place concrete Wood can be used extensively in earth sheltered construction for both:
1/ Interior and structural work including floors, Roofs.
2/ Exterior walls. Steel is used for beams, bar joists,columns, and concrete reinforcement.

It is particularly useful because of its high tensional and compressional strength.

Primary disadvantage of steel is that it must be protected against corrosion if it is exposed to the elements or to groundwater. EARTH BAGS COB CONSTRUCTION EARTH SHELTERED RAMMED EARTH STRAWBALE CORDWOOD Types Definition EARTHSHIPS is a technique for building walls using the raw materials of earth, chalk, lime and gravel. It is an ancient building method that has seen a revival in recent years as people seek more sustainable building materials and natural building methods. Distinct appearance
Natural and readily available
Low embodied energy (a level similar to brick veneer construction)
Unstablised earth is reuseable post-demolition
High moisture mass, hygroscopic - helps regulate humidity
High thermal mass
Traditional form of construction Concerns over durability – requires careful detailing
Not all soil types are appropriate
High levels of construction quality control are required
Longer than average construction period
High clay content can cause moisture movement. Structures may need to accommodate this. Example: Building: Suoi Re Village Community House

Architects: Hoàng Thúc Hào, Nguyn Duy Thanh

Location: Hoa Binh province, Vietnam

Project year: 2010 PLANS SECTIONS Climate analysis Building material kindergarten multi- purpose room grass steps sport yard toilet front veranda
& stone steps RAMMED EARTH EARTH SHELTERED N Done by : Ammar Alsayed
Hajir Elsiddig
Maram Sheikh Idris
Marwa Abdul Salam
Reem Fathi
Saryah Elsamani
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