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Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic
Transcript of Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic
'The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic
Jefferson had kept most of Hamilton's supporters once he had come into office, but he didn't change most of the office heads, especially the "midnight appointees"
These are men pointed to positions without proper consent of either the cabinet or congress.
Hamilton did this to keep most of his influence on the Government
Within the first few months of moving into the white house, Jefferson drastically changed the nation's foreign policy. The following quote is from his presidential address "Seeking to allay Federalist fears of a bull- in-the-china-closet overturn, Jefferson ingratiatingly intoned, “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.” As for foreign affairs, he pledged “honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none.” (pg206)
He did this to try to create a some common ground with the Federalists and democratic republicans in hope of a house where laws are past
Responsibility Breeds Moderation
The Jeffersonian Revolution (1800)
Jefferson had beaten Adams on majority, the 3/5th clause- counting 3/5th of the slave population for the electoral college. Jefferson had won the south meaning and had a big advantage. Jefferson then had his running mate Aaron Burr run against him, the votes were tied and the vote went to the House of Representatives. It was a deadlock that took
many weeks of voting. Finally a few federalists decided not to vote because they did not want Burr in office. After that Jefferson became presented and was inaugurated on March 4th 1801 in the village of Washington.
"Dead Clutch" of Judiciary
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was one of the last important laws passed by the expiring federalist congress. It created sixteen new judge ships and other judicial offices. Adams supposedly spent his last day in office signing of commissions for the judges. The law was seen as way for the federalists to entrench themselves in the 3 branches of government. When Jefferson came into office he cleansed the Judiciary of the federalist and put in his own judges. The case of
Marbury v. Madison
which was to determine if Marbury was entitled to his appointment as justice of peace. The court voted against him and 4 voted yes for Madison and the other 2 judges did not participate.
The Louisiana Godsend
In 1800 Napoleon of France told the King of Spain to give France the trans-Mississippi region of Louisiana. Rumors of the transfer were confirmed in 1802 when the spainards withdrew the right to deposit. For a while the warehouses were shut down and many farmers relied on New Orleans to make money. After a couple of years of high tensions, Jefferson sent James Monroe to go and buy New Orleans for 10 million. Napoleon decided to sell the entire region of Louisiana for 15 million and gave up his dream on a New World Empire.
Jefferson, a Reluctant Warrior
Jefferson had his first military conflict of his presidency, The Tripolitan War.
US merchant ships had been attacked in the Mediterranean sea by prirates off the coast of Affrica
Jefferson sent US Marines along with the Navy to surpress the issue,
It ended 4 years later with a treaty and a sum of $60,000, (for captured Americans)
The Judiciary Act of 1801
H- The Judiciary Act of 1801 was enacted right before Adams was to leave office, he then filled in all of the open positions the night before Jeffersons inaguartation giving it the term "Midnight Judges"
A- This document was intended for the US government and judges of the judiciary branch
P- The purpose of this document was to provide a more convinent orginzation of the courts of the United States
P- This document was written in the point of view of the Fedarlists and that they didn't want Jeffersons republicans to change the agenda of the nation, so Adams attempted to fill the judge positions with Fedarlist judges.
Y- Look above to find out "Why" this document was written
The Embargo act (1807)
H-The Embargo act was a law to keep the people of the United States interfering with other countries and from having another conflict like the Tripolitan war.
A-This was written to the sailors and merchants of the United States
P-It's main purpose was to keep merchants and sailors from exporting goods to hositle nations to keep from repeating the Tripolitan war
P-It also kept a check on the nation and on its imports and exports
Y-Jefferson wrote this because he did't want any conflict of anykind with other nations in general. He thought this was a good way to keep the nation safe
The Haitian Revolution took place when slaves on the island of Haiti over threw the french government in Haiti with the help of Toussaint Louverture- he was considered the "Black Washington", he restored the plantation system with paid labor on the island but the French decided they wanted the island back and captured Toussaint and later died, when French troops arrived many people died on both sides but the french suffered heavy casualties because of mosquitos carrying yellow fever. Napolean accepted the loss and let go of the former french colony.
It's in french sorry, but it shows Toussaint and how he became the leader of Haiti and how the French tried to take it back
This is a documentary by PBS talking about the Haitian Revolution. If watch the first 2-4 minutes, it will give you a good idea on what happened
Lewis and Clark
Most of the area of Louisiana had not been explored so Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to go on a scientific expedition. Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery ascended the “Great Muddy” (Missouri River) from St. Louis and spent the winter of 1804–1805 with the Mandan Indians in present-day North Dakota. Then, aided by the Shoshone woman Sacajawea. Lewis and Clark’s two-and-one-half-year expedi- tion yielded a rich harvest of scientific observations, maps, knowledge of the Indians in the region, and hair-raising wilderness adventure stories.
Arron Burr Conspiracies
Arron Burr was Jefferson's Vice president
Burr wanted to take the Louisiana purchase and make it into a new confederacy
General James Wilkinson- the corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida; betrayed Burr when he learned that Jefferson knew of the plot; Burr was acquitted of the charges of treason by Chief Justice John Marshall and he fled to Europe.
Jefferson left office after two terms following Washington
James Madison follow and took the oath in 1809
His first presidential act was the The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809—which was like the embargo act but on a smaller scale. In the last sixteen days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. The intent was to damage the economies of the United Kingdom and France.
Mr Madison's war
Madison declared war with Britain and indian tribes in the 1812
This created a great divide between the house and the senate
The war lasted two and a half years