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Research Pop Culture Fads, Trends, and Icons

Success 101 Assignment

Natalie Jessop

on 12 May 2011

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Transcript of Research Pop Culture Fads, Trends, and Icons

Research Pop Culture Fads, Trends, and Icons 1920's Film and Theater A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. Film Theater The movie is projected with a movie projector onto a large projection screen at the front of the auditorium. The early silent movies were often accompanied by live piano or organ music and provided enormous entertainment value to audiences everywhere. Although various attempts had been made to introduce sound, it wasn't until 1923 that a commercially distributed film contained a synchronised sound track that was photographically recorded and printed on to the side of the strip of motion picture film. Food and Drinks Food Food was plentiful and cheap thanks to the large quantities produced by American farms. The American diet in the early part of the century consisted for a large part of meat and potatoes. A lot of time was taken up in preparing and cooking meals Manufactured foods introduced in the 1920s include - Baby Ruth Candy Bar Drinks When Prohibition went into effect in America on January 16, 1920, it did more than stop the legal sale of alcoholic beverages in our country, it increased the production of soft drinks, put hundreds of restaurants and hotels out of business, spurred the growth of tea rooms and cafeterias, and destroyed the last vestiges of fine dining in the United States Music Jazz, Ragtime and Broadway musicals were features of 1920's music. early twentieth century, African American musicians began gathering in New Orleans. They would congregate to improvise and share their music in Storyville. Early jazz musicians often called New Orleans their home, even if they spent little time there. Print Media The press hounded Charles Lindbergh, the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris in 1927. His daring 3610-mile journey, completed in 33.5 hours, made him an international hero. It was an era when anyone who appeared in the press became an instant celebrity. Soprts and Games Along with all the other grand titles of the decade, the 1920s were also known as "The Golden Age of Sports." Players in almost every sport far exceeded fans' expectations and became heroic legends who are still remembered. They included baseball greats Babe Ruth (18951948), Ty Cobb (18861961), and Lou Gehrig (19031941); football heroes Red Grange (19031991) and Knute Rockne (18881931); tennis aces Helen Wills (19051998) and Bill Tilden (18931953); and probably the greatest lightweight boxer Benny Leonard (18961947) and heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey (18951983). The dominating performance of Americans at the seventh and eighth Olympic games Fashion The 1920s is the decade in which fashion entered the modern era. It was the decade in which women first liberated themselves from constricting fashions and began to wear more comfortable clothes (such as short skirts or trousers). Men likewise abandoned overly formal clothes and began to wear sport clothes for the first time. The suits men wear today are still based, for the most part, on those men wore in the late 1920s. Television and Radio This decade marked the shift in American culture to electronic media for entertainment and news. The first radios were sold in the United States for home use in 1920. By mid-decade, a decent radio could be purchased for about $35, with higher quality models being sold for up to $350. By the end of the decade, more than five million of the battery-powered radios were sold. THE WAY PPL LIVED The technological advances of the beginning of the century continued to impact lives in the 1920s. Henry Ford (18631947) had improved his assembly-line techniques to produce a Model T every ten seconds by 1925. Automobiles were more affordable than ever: Some models sold for as little as $50. By the end of the decade, 23.1 million passenger cars crowded the streets of America. Telephones were in 13 percent of American homes by 1921, and American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) had become America's largest corporation by 1925. 1930's Film and theater The 1930s decade has been nostalgically labeled "The Golden Age of Hollywood." The 30s was also the decade of the sound and color revolutions and the advance of the 'talkies', and the further development of film genres. It was the era in which the silent period ended, with many silent film stars not making the transition to sound. By 1933, the economic effects of the Depression were being strongly felt, especially in decreased movie theatre attendance. Food and Drinks Many people had enjoyed luxuries during the prosperous 1920s, with its easy credit and regular paymens plans, but the 1930s were a different story. Families across the nation struggled to make ends meet after the stock market crash of 1929 led to the Great Depression , a decade-long economic collapse that affected the entire world. Families budgeted their resources and began making goods that they had once purchased ready-made in stores. Food was one item most people could figure out how to make at home. Music The 1930s was a decade of hard times in the Unites States. The stock market crash of 1929 caused an economic depression throughout the United States and much of the rest of the world. Then in the 1930s, there was a terrible drought in the western United States that led to what became known as the Dust Bowl. Agriculture failed for several years, and many people were forced to leave their jobs and homes. But, in spite of the hardships, the 1930s was a great decade in American music. Anyone with access to a radio could share in it. Print Media Publishers became economically squeezed as circulation and advertising profits declined. Even William Randolph Hearst (1910s, 1940s), who then owned the largest press empire, had to sell stocks and pump in personal funds to keep his newspapers afloat. Many readers switched to more economical condensed periodicals such as Time or Reader's Digest (see 1920/ Publications section) which gathered the most important articles from various publications. Sports and Games The 1920s were thought to be the "golden age of sports." Throughout the 1930s, however, capable athletes broke previous records in rapid succession. Swimmers swam faster, track stars ran faster, horses raced faster, and race-car and powerboat drivers broke new speed records. The rules of basketball and the design of the football were changed to make the games move faster and to increase scores. In the 1920s, single individuals—such as Babe Ruth in baseball, Jack Dempsey in boxing, and Bobby Jones in golf—were called the best in their sport. Fashion Generally fashions of the 1930s are thought of as glamorous and sensuous. This is the era of the big bands, dancing and night life. The dresses are long and elegant, evening gowns were often backless and importantly there develops a very distinct difference between daywear and evening wear. Television and Radio The radio brought together the rich and the poor, of every race, nationality or creed in one audience rather than in many separate readerships in the print media. During the Great Depression, radio advertising revenues doubled (while newspaper and magazine profits were halved), because radio could reach a large national audience. Radio continued to focus on entertainment then news, until World War II where newscasts on the radio became more prominent. Throughout the 1930s, David Sarnoff, president of Radio Corporation of America, started the drive to develop the television. In 1937, 17 experimental television stations emerged. Television was publicly introduced at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. The phenomenon of bringing both pictures and sound to a home audience would soon shake the position of radio and print media. However, World War II prevented its development until the 1950s. The Way People Lived Imagine what it would be like to have a family full of brothers and sisters. Babies wrapped in blankets, no clothes underneath, their families couldn't afford them. Imagine all your other siblings in ragged hand-me-downs, and old scraps you found on the street. You're all so depressed, because Dad lost his job. You have to wait in line, all of you, every morning, really early, babies are still asleep, all for a microscopic crumb or crust of bread. This was the 1930's: The Great Depression was bearing down on all; the Hindenburg air ship burned; Charles Lindbergh's baby was kidnapped and later found dead. Follow us as we sail through the headlines of the New York Times and the articles. 1940's Film and Theater Rising from the economic ashes of the “Great Depression”, the 1940s brought a global war that changed the very concept of war. For the first time civilians were as likely to be killed as soldiers, and a doomsday weapon of unimaginable power was unleashed bringing the planet suddenly, and violently into the “Nuclear Age”. Nearly every country was brought into World War II, and no country was unaffected by it. By the time the war ended in 1945, over 35 million people had died because of the conflict. Food and Drink The economic boom that World War II (1939–45) started in America offered disposable income to more people than ever. With more people working, wages more than twice the norm of the previous decade, and businesses producing more and more consumer products, Americans began living differently. By the end of the war, instead of laboring over their Depression-era (1929–41) or wartime gardens, families in the newly developed suburbs could afford to buy more processed food and to eat out more often. Music Music in the 1940s was mainly built around the jazz and big band styles that were popular during the day. Artists like Rosemary Clooney, Count Basie, and Artie Shaw helped to define the musical era with their unique brand of entertaining crowds through their music. This was also the era of World War II, and many musical acts strived to reflect the pain that the country was going through while still remaining upbeat and positive about the impending future. The 1940's was a time for many breakthrough artists who made their mark in the history of music and several of them are still recognized as innovators in their day. Print Media World War II dominated serious print media from 1939 until most of the last troops returned from Europe in 1946. American newspapers and magazines focused intently on bringing news from the front to the doorsteps of almost every American. Stories and photographs of soldiers and battles filled most of the papers' pages. Thirty-seven American reporters and other newspeople died while trying to get their stories during the war. sports and Games In 1947 Jackie Robinson became the first black to play Major League Baseball. He played for the Brooklyn Dodgers and was born Jan. 31, 1919 in Cairo, GA. In 1947 he becomes a player for the Dodgers. In 1949, he wins the National Leagues Most Valuable Player Award. Jackie died on October 24, 1972 in Stanford, Connecticut. He was featured in TIME Magazine on September 22, 1947.

One-armed Pete Gray was a starting left fielder and lead- off batter for the St. Louis Browns. Chicago Caramel Tailback, Ren Cahlii, displayed the crisp form that produced 21 interceptions and 109 attempted passes.

In 1935, Leo Seltzer decided to find another way to make a living. He gathered a bunch of roller skaters and convinced the roller skaters that they would get paid big cash to have people roller skate around and hit people to make them crash. This would be called "Roller Derby." It would remain a popular sport onto the 1940s.
Boxing was another hit. One of the wrestler's names was Rocky Grazalo. Most of his friends were gone because of death including the electric chair. Fashion The United States did not enter the war until December of 1941; more than two years after it had begun. Until then, some Paris fashion trends were followed in the States, but travel difficulties meant that many American designers received more attention from the press than ever before.

In all the countries at war, fashion took second place to providing basic necessities to the men and women in the armed forces. Many factories were given over to producing military supplies. The remaining fashion houses worked with restrictions on how much fabric could be used in any garment, and consumers had to fit clothing into their allotments of ration coupons. Television and Radio Radio proved its importance during World War II with almost immediate coverage of events. Between 1941 and 1945, Americans tuned in to listen to breaking news from Europe, hearing about major battles and the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii just moments after the actual events. News reporters such as Edward R. Murrow and William Shirer offered insightful commentary and straight, hard news. Their example would influence the news anchors on the new media—television, commonly called TV—for decades. Radio's golden age ended with the war. The way people lived When World War II (1939–45) ended, Americans had endured fifteen years of economic depression and war. Lacking money during the Great Depression (1929–41; see entry under 1930s— The Way We Lived in volume 2) and unsure of the future during the war, many young couples put off having families during these years. With the war over and economic prosperity restored, they no longer had to wait. By 1946, the "baby boom" was on, with more babies being born than ever before. 1950's Film and Theater In the early 1950s, “3-D movies were enjoyed a huge popularity among American moviegoers.” (Edelman 1) However when customers began moving from the cities to the suburbs they were falling fast, and so as years pasted more interesting and fascinating movies, such as Bwana Devil (1952) and House of Wax (1953) attracted audiences. However, 3-D was just a fad, but was later reintroduced in the 1980s. Food and Drink Although most Americans continued to eat as they always had—at home, with freshly prepared foods—several important trends in American eating habits began to emerge in the 1950s: standardization and franchising. The symbol of both these trends was the most noted restaurant chain of the century: McDonald's. Founded in 1948, McDonald's expanded across America in the 1950s through a system known as franchising. Franchising offered individual owners the opportunity to own a profitable restaurant if they would follow the McDonald's business formula. Music The music of the 1950s flourished as a result of the previous decade. The 50s saw the emergence and rise of what would come to be known as Rock ‘n Roll, but it was also witnessed the popularity of Country and Western music in a variety of forms. Musicians like Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Hank Williams helped to redefine the entertainment industry with the types of music that they created during this time period. Following the detrimental effects of World War II, the United States was about to embark on a musical journey that changed the face of music for decades to come. Print Media The stereotype that labels the 1950s as a sleepy, conformist decade is at no time less true than when discussing the media. The 1950s were revolutionary years in the media. During the decade the technology and content of radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and the movies entered a period of rapid change. In the aftermath of the Great Depression and World War II, the pent-up demand for goods and services and the unexploited supply of new technologies combined to bring a nearly unprecedented wave of radical change to many areas of American life. The rise of television as an entertainment center for the American public was the dominant media trend of the 1950s. Television supplanted radio as the primary source of entertainment, dramatic, comedic, and variety programs; radio by the end of the decade was primarily given only to popular music, news, and sports programming. Sports and Games Americans' interest in sports intensified during the decade. Television brought live sports into peoples' homes for the first time. A new magazine, Sports Illustrated, was created to provide a weekly source of sports news and photographs. Baseball remained the most popular of American sports, and the New York Yankees continued to dominate the sport, winning seven of the nine World Series they played in during the decade. Professional football finally surpassed college football in popularity during the decade, thanks in part to the weekly televised broadcasts of games. During the winter, Americans turned to basketball. Fashion 1950s fashion, like all fashion, reflected the fears and aspirations of its time. Two decades of deprivation and struggle were relieved by the threat of global nuclear war. Wartime restrictions and rations were removed, disappearing for most by the mid-1950s; in America, and parts of Europe, a new prosperity blossomed out of the ashes. Tevevision and Radio Television was introduced to Americans in 1939 and began to gain a foothold after World War II (1939–45). In the 1950s, the sale of TV sets and the boom in programming made TV America's favorite source of entertainment. Consider the numbers: in 1946, 7,000 TV sets were sold; in 1948, 172,000 sets were sold; and in 1950, 5 million sets were sold. In 1950, just under 20 percent of American homes contained a TV set. Ten years later, nearly 90 percent of homes contained a TV—and some even had color TVs. The Way People Lived The development of suburbs—residential communities on the outskirts of cities—was one of the most dominant features of American life in the twentieth century. Far from being merely a way Americans organized their housing and changed their landscape, the suburbs created an entirely new way of ordering American social life and culture. The result was a phenomenon known as "suburbia," a term meaning both a physical place and often a cultural and social mind-set as well. 1960's Film and Theater During the mid-1960s, one of cinema's most successful kind of film was the beach-movie genre. These low-budget, hastily produced features celebrated California's beaches, surfing, and teen culture. One series of films starred Frankie Avalon and Annette Funicello as "Frankie" and "Dee Dee"—two wholesome teens who descended upon the beach with dozens of their friends every summer. The group lived free from the interference of parents and without financial worries. They spent their days surfing, partying, dancing, skydiving, and enjoying other innocent entertainments Food and Drinks Brown rice became popular in the United States as part of the whole and organic foods movement that began in the 1960s and 1970s. Health food stores sprang up to meet the new consumer demands for such things as whole wheat products, tofu, miso, and brown rice. Today, organic and whole foods are found in every neighborhood grocery store, and many restaurants serve brown rice and vegi-burgers as a matter of course. Music The Beatles made their American debut on The Ed Sullivan Show on Sunday, February 9, 1964 (at 8 PM Eastern Time). In New York City, there were 50,000 requests for seats in the studio that held only 703 people. An estimated audience of 73 million television viewers watched the Beatles perform 5 songs and become the music rage of the United States. Print media In 1963, CBS introduced a middle-aged wire-service reporter who commanded respect and trust from his television audience. On November 22, 1963, Walter Cronkite was the only anchor present to announce the assasination of President John F. Kennedy. Walter Cronkite anchored the half-hour news show, CBS Evening News, that held viewers for nearly twenty years, giving substance and credibility to television news. Each evening the Cronkite would sum up, "And that's the way it is," to give his report the feel of a true and objective account of the day's happenings. In a quest for facts, Cronkite personally went to Vietnam in 1965, and again in 1968 to cover the war. By 1967, all three networks, ABC, NBC and CBS had expanded the evening news from fifteen to thirty minutes. During the Cronkite years, television gained enormous credence as a news medium. Sports and Games The 1960s saw professional sports finally attain dominance in the hearts of American sports fans. The overlapping seasons of professional baseball, football, hockey, and basketball offered sports fans year-round entertainment, and television broadcasting increased in sophistication to make sports coverage more exciting. It also helped that the 1960s were filled with dramatic moments and glamorous sports stars. Fashion As with other areas of American popular culture, fashion underwent a real transition in the 1960s, from conservatism to excess, from social conformity to individuality. The fashion icon of the first years of the decade was first lady Jacqueline Kennedy, wife of the popular young president John F. Kennedy. Jacqueline Kennedy, with her simple yet tasteful clothes, was featured in most of the popular fashion magazines of the day. However, the refined conservatism of the first lady soon gave way to much bolder styles. Television and Radio Since the 1960s, American children have concluded each long week of school by waking up early on Saturday mornings to view their favorite animated cartoon programs on television (see entry under 1940s—TV and Radio in volume 3). Saturday morning is the only period during the week in which the broadcast networks schedule entertainment programming aimed specifically at the nation's youngest TV viewers. Generations of kids have grown up watching characters like Scooby Doo, Yogi Bear, Fat Albert, Johnny Quest, the Smurfs, and the Super-friends. The Way People Lived The National Organization for Women (NOW) was one of the major forces in the revival of the women's movement in the United States during the 1960s. Founded in 1966, NOW champions women's rights and tries to influence legislation and public policy that affects women, providing an important public voice for women in the United States. 1970's Film and Theater Before George Lucas became known as the man who created the Star Wars universe, he made another classic film, "American Graffiti". Francis Ford Coppola helped finance less than one million dollars, to this still somewhat unknown Lucas and his movie, which ended up being one of the top grossing films to this date. Based on Lucas's memories of his own teen years in Modesto, California, the film pays tribute to the innocent era of the early 60's. A time of driving around in cars with the top down, picking up girls, eating hamburgers at the drive-in, and listening to the radio. The soundtrack contains all the classics of the early rock era, and the cast would soon be all quite well known; Ron Howard, Richard Dreyfuss, Cindy Williams, Mackenzie Phillips, Suzanne Sommers, Wolfman Jack and Harrison Ford. Appears on AFI's Best Movies of all time list at 77. Food And drinks One food trend during the 70's was Fondue. People would buy fondue pots, which held melted cheese for dipping bread or hot oil which raw meat was dipped into with long forks.

They would have fondue parties and play Twister.

Before microwave ovens were invented, crock pots were popular in the 70's, which cooked food all day so a hot meal was ready when you got home.

Also, Hamburger Helper hit it's peak during the 70's. At first there were only a few varieties, you took a pound of ground beef and had a meal. Now there are dozens of types of Hamburger Helper, as well as Tuna helper, but it's not as popular as it was in the 70's.

And candies like Pop Rocks, Zotz, and Clark bars were popular.

And NBC's "Saturday Night at The Movies" wasn't complete without a bowl of burnt Jiffy Pop stove-top popcorn to eat. Music The 1970s saw the emergence of hard rock as one of the most prominent subgenres of rock music. Bands like Alice Cooper and Deep Purple were highly popular by 1972. By the second half of the decade, several bands had achieved stardom, namely, Lynyrd Skynyrd, Aerosmith and Kiss. Print media Women's magazines were well received in the 1970s. These new publications were published by and for women, addressing real issues of concern and interest, such as women's health and female spirituality. Today's Christian Women made its debut in 1978, its article often to do with spiritual development, parenting and controlling anger. Christian bookstores, educational institutions and therapy programs subsidized it, rather than advertisers. In July 1972, 'Ms.' Magazine began publication, serving primarily as a forum for women's liberation. Ms. interviewed some of the world's most powerful women of the Seventies, and continues to do so today. Sports and games The 1970s was known for three renegade sports leagues that challenged older, established organizations in need of an energy boost and fresh perspective on their respective sports. The American Basketball Association (ABA), founded in 1967, was well-known for its faster, up-tempo style of play, its multicolored red, white, and blue ball, and the introduction of the three-point shot. In 1976, the NBA took in four former ABA teams when that league folded. The NBA also adopted the three-point shot and many star ABA players who would go on to star in the NBA. Fashion 1970s fashion , which began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s, was soon sharply characterized by several distinct fashion trends that have left an indelible image of the decade commemorated in popular culture. These include platform shoes which appeared on the fashion scene in 1971 and often had soles two to four inches thick. These were worn by both men and women. Wide-legged, flared jeans and trousers were another fashion mainstay for both sexes throughout most of the decade, and this style has been immortalised in the 1977 film Saturday Night Fever, which starred John Travolta. The way People Lived The 1970s also saw a change in education. In the 1960s, many young people expressed little interest in continuing their education after four years of study in college. They were busy working for social reforms. Many believed that more education only created unequal classes of people.

By the middle 1970s, however, more young people decided it was acceptable to make a lot of money. Higher education was a way to get the skills to do this. Law schools and medical schools soon had long lists of students waiting to get in.
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