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Transcript of Bennett's DMIS
Cognitive sophistication improves as a person becomes more culturally aware. Bennett's Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Recognition of cultural difference coupled with negative evaluations of those whose culture is different Individuals tend to ignore that diversity exists
They mean well but are ignorant because they use stereotypes and superficial statements of tolerance
They have limited experiences of dealing with culturally diverse people
"Mixing just causes problems"
The Holocaust is an example of extreme denial Individuals must find commonalities among people before they can move into the next levels Strong dualistic "us-them" thinking
Individuals prefer to separate themselves from others because they don;t have categories for dealing with difference
Denigration ( derogation) - belittling or actively discriminating against another
Superiority - looking down upon someone due to extreme ethnocentrism
Reversal - changing sides or believing one's own culture is inferior to another
"Genetically, they just don't have the capability to understand these things."
Individuals need to recognize commonalities among people, but also learn that other individuals and groups have difference; in order to move onto the net stage. Minimization Discovery of similarities among people and commonalities of basic values Individuals still define commonalities in ethnocentric terms
Evidence shows that most teachers are at this stage
Individuals tend to ignore differences that actually do exist and are important to recognize
Belief that everyone should share one's own reality
"Customs differ but when you really get to know them they're pretty much like us." Cultural self-awareness must be achieved before an individual can move onto the ethnorelative stages. Acceptance Ability to recognize and appreciate cultural difference in terms of both people's values and their behavior Individuals begin to demonstrate the ability to interpret actions within a cultural context and to analyze complex interactions in culture-contrast terms
In this stage people begin to seek out cultural difference
People may have respect and value for cultural differences, but not necessarily agree with all that they see.
"The more cultures you know about, the better comparisons you can make." To move to the next stage, individuals must learn to be even more open-minded about cultural categories Adaption Ability to use empathy effectively, shift frames of reference, and both understand and be understood across cultural boundaries Individuals feel a need for action in this stage and become able to change frames of reference
Cultural adaption - ability to consciously shift perspective into alternative cultural elements and to use multiple cultural frames of reference in evaluating actions
Behavioral adaption - ability to act in culturally appropriate ways and internalize more than one complete worldview
People are becoming multicultural
"I can maintain my values and also behave in culturally appropriate ways."
In order for one to reach the final stage, they must be able to have multiple frames of reference Integration Ability to internalize multicilutral frames of reference Individuals can identify and move freely within more than one cultural group.
They can become mediators and are able to facilitate constructive contact between cultures
Rare and difficult for most people to achieve this
"Whatever the situation, I can usually look at it from a variety of cultural points of view."