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intellectual demand

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Martin Westwell

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of intellectual demand

Intellectual Demand
What does this really mean?

school grades
uni entry score
(not instructable but learnable)
putting it all
view of self as
a learner
(not instructable but learnable)
into action
not reading
not more/better "instruction"
"...but I've taught them that!"
Blair et al 2008 Mind, Brain and Education 2:80
scaffold towards knowledge & procedures
O’Boyle et al (2005) Cognitive Brain Research
Haier & Benbow (1995) Dev Neuropsych
Geake (2009) The Brain at School: Educational Neuroscience in the Classroom

Students' prior cognitive ability

Students' disposition to learn
Effect size



Source of influence



Hattie (2003) Teachers make a difference
scaffold towards thinking, inferring, & problem solving
knowledge & know-how
making it work for you
“… those children who became more
self-controlled from childhood to young adulthood had better outcomes by the age of 32 y, even after controlling for their initial levels of childhood self-control.”
Moffitt et al 2011, PNAS USA
Moffitt et al 2011, PNAS USA
goal setting
problem solving
switching attention
assessing risk
decision making
error checking
on plan
sticking to plan
sustaining attention
inhibiting impulses
working memory
cognitive flexibility
Intellectual demand:
"putting it all into action"


self directed learner
For example
e.g., Carol Dweck, Stanford University
e.g., Stankov et al. (2012) Learning & Individual Differences
"Confidence: a better predictor of academic achievement thank self-efficacy, self-concept and anxiety?"
e.g., Raemdonck, et al. (2011) Vocations & Learning
"Does self-directedness in learning and careers predict the employability of low qualified employees."
From Westwell & Panizzon (2011)
"Cognitive neuroscience - Implications for career development strategies and interventions"
"… For those with the capacity to take advantage of these changes, typically the affluent, expanding opportunities led to improved outcomes. But for those without, events left them further behind than ever.”

"what's the answer"
"what do you think"
Martin Westwell
entity vs incremental view of your intelligence
Learning entitlement
Entitlement to be taught
Opportunity of instruction
More "active teaching"
What factor(s) from
childhood and adolescence

cause / influence / predict / correlate with

an adult's SocioEconomic Status?
Simpson et al. (2012) Developmental Science 15:62-73
Diamond (2013) Annu. Rev. Psychol. 64:135-68
not acting impulsively or prematurely
holding information in mind and mentally working with it
changing perspectives or approaches to a problem, flexibly adjusting to new demands, rules or priorities
Bloom, B. S. et al (1956)
Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals: Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain NY, Longmans
Anderson, L. & Krathwohl, D. A (2001)
Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives NY, Longman
No systematic rationale
Range of options
“mythology” and interpretation
"one of the most widely cited yet least read books in … education.”
e.g. Morshead R. W. (1965) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Handbook II: Affective Domain. Studies in Philosophy and Education
Bloom B. S. (1994) Reflections on the development and use of the taxonomy in Anderson, L. W. et al (1994), Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty-Year Retrospective.
not throwing away - getting a more complete view
first step to meaningful Intellectual Demand
(but not the last)
1. understand the problem

2. devise a plan

3. carry out the plan

4. look back
SEARCH - underline the question
SORT - identify relevant information

SEE - visualise, draw a diagram/map
SELECT - decide what are you going to use

SOLVE - use your knowledge & information

SENSE - does it make sense?
John Pegg, UNE
How does Australia compare?
What do you think?
(most positive gradient)
(among most +ve gradients)
(flat but among most negative gradients)
(among most negative gradients)
The teacher explains how a school science idea can be applied to a number of different phenomena (e.g.,the movement of objects, substances with similar properties)
The teacher uses science to help students understand the world outside school
The teacher clearly explains the relevance of broad science concepts to our lives
The teacher uses examples of technological application to show how school science is relevant to society
Students are required to design how a school science question could be investigated in the laboratory
Students spend time in the laboratory doing practical experiments
Students do experiments by following the instructions of the teacher
Students are asked to draw conclusions from an experiment they have conducted
The lesson involved students' opinions about the topics
Students are given opportunities to explain their ideas
There is a class debate or discussion
Students are given the chance to choose their own investigations
Students are allowed to design their own experiments
Students are asked to do an investigation to test out their own ideas
large +ve
small -ve
large(est) +ve
large -ve
Instead, students should conduct investigations with appropriate guidance and instructional scaffolding. Finally, making science relevant seems important for student’s achievement, as captured by the positive link between models and applications in science (APPLICATIONS) and science achievement."
"... our analyses clearly indicate that there are particular pedagogical approaches underlying inquiry that appear to be more influential on student’s achievement in science."
"Overall, our findings do not imply that scientific investigations are not valuable to students’ learning of science and their science achievement.
However, the evidence seems to strongly suggest that students who independently select and carry out such investigations tend to have lowered science achievement.
...such investigations may lack proper instructional scaffolding.

...investigations, in of themselves, are not effective, particularly if students are left to discovery processes on their own...
(Kirschner et al., 2006)
(Flick & Lederman, 2004)
use of:
1 4 8
13 14 26 29
33 35 36
3 9 15
19 21 22 23
24 25 31
Does this word
describe you?
Does this word
have an e?
EFs and prefrontal cortex are the first to suffer, and suffer disproportionately, if something is not right in your life. They suffer first, and most, if you are:
sleep deprived,
or not physically fit
(Arnsten 1998, Liston et al. 2009, Oaten & Cheng 2005)
(Hirtetal. 2008, von Hecker & Meiser 2005)
(Baumeister et al. 2002, Cacioppo & Patrick 2008, Campbell et al. 2006, Tunet al. 2012)
(Barnes et al. 2012, Huang et al. 2007)
(Best 2010, Chaddock et al. 2011, Hillman et al. 2008).
Any of these can cause you to appear to have a disorder of EFs, such as ADHD, when you do not.

You can see the deleterious effects of stress, sadness, loneliness, and lack of physical health or fitness at the physiological and neuroanatomical level in prefrontal cortex and at the behavioural level in worse EFs (poorer reasoning and problem solving, forgetting things, and impaired ability to exercise discipline and self control).
Diamond (2013) Annual Reviews
Kath Flynn, KICE
High standards
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