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The Age of Empire

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Hasna Karim

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of The Age of Empire

The Age of Empires
Aparna Mahendranath and Hasna Karim
The Han Empire
The Roman Empire
The Persian Empire(s)
The Mauryan Empire
The Gupta Empire
Republic to Empire
Contributions and Lasting Impacts
Former Han
Patriarchal
Confucian
Iron Industry Increase
Tougher implements
Food- population
Manufactured goods- trade and military
Many wars-expensive
Silk Trade
Long distance relations
The Macedonian Empire
Sources
Period of Decline
Han Wudi-repay expenses
Taxes and confiscated land
Discouraged investment
Affected economy
Land redistribution
Cheap Labor
Wang Mang (9 CE)
Land Reform
Limited amount of land a family could hold
Broke up large estates
Confusion
Poor harvests, famine, revolts
23 CE died and ended rule
Roman Economy and Society
Fall of Rome
Magadha
Hindu Based- but tolerated other religions
Chandra Gupta- Founder
Alliances
Dynamic (320-415 CE)
Successors
Samudra Gupta (335 CE)
Chandra Gupta II (375 CE)
Conquered & Tributary Alliances
Trade
Latifundia system- crops for export
Mediterranean trade-
mare nostrum
Roman roads
City of Rome became extremely wealthy
Silk roads trade
Society
Socially stratified society: patricians and plebians
Paterfamilias
Heavy Greek philosophical influence
Religions: Roman deities, Mithraism, eventually Christianity
Fall of the Gupta
Allies controlled various regions
Nomadic Invasions- split
Repelled...defense costly and weakening
Huns' kingdom in North and West
"Gupta" regional kingdoms (550 CE)
Rise of the Gupta
Tried to imitate Former Han
BUT DID NOT FIX LAND DISTRIBUTION
Caused internal decay
Uprisings-2nd and 3rd Century
Factions and War
Gradual decentralization
4 Centuries of regional kingdoms

Persian Wars
Golden Age of Pericles
Delian League and Peloponnesian League= Peloponnesian War
Easy invasion

Phillip III- Macedon
Founder
Respected Greek Culture
Alex the Great: Phillip III’s son
Height
Expanded Macedonian dominance
3 Empires:
Antigonid
Ptolemaic
Seleucid
Hellenism
Rise
Later Han
After overhthrow of Etruscan kings, republican constitution
Consuls, Senate- patrician dominated
Tribunes to appease plebs
Republic not designed for large empire
Civil war- Gaius Marius vs. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Marius- land redistribution
Sulla- conservative and aristocratic ally
Julius Caesar- foundations of empire
Octavian- first real emperor
The Achaemenid Empire
Seleucids, Parthians, and Sasanids
Trade, Society, and Religion
Major Contributions
Rise and Fall of the Mauryans
Trade, Society, Religion
Bentley, Jerry H., and Herbert F. Ziegler. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2000. Print.
"Ancient Rome and Trade." Ancient Rome and Trade. N.p., 2000. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Ancient Rome." Ancient Rome. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014.
"A Relic of the Mauryan Era." The Archaeology News Network:. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2014.
"1320: Section 8: The Fall of Rome: Facts and Fictions." 1320: Section 8: The Fall of Rome: Facts and Fictions. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"The Mauryan Empire - World History For Kids - By KidsPast.com." The Mauryan Empire - World History For Kids - By KidsPast.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
Shahbazi, A. Sh. "History of Iran: Parthian Army." History of Iran: Parthian Army. Iran Chamber Society, n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Iron Pillar of Delhi." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Apr. 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Wang Mang." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 01 Jan. 2004. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Emperor Wu of Han." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 23 Apr. 2014. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Alexander The Great Incredible Quotes!" VictorStuff. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
"Ancient World History." : Gupta Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014.
Fell after Alex the Great
Focus shifted and Romans rose
Fall
Causes
Internal decay- "barracks emperors"
Empire split into East and West by Diocletian
Tetrarchs system
Germanic invasion and migration
Invasion of the Huns
Collapse of Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman continued as Byzantine
Major Contributions
Hellenistic Culture
Adopted and spread globally
World unified
3 Hellenistic Empires
Control over Conquering
Cyrus the Shepard established empire (c. 548 BCE)
Darius the Great- expanded empire, introduced new administrative techniques, new capital
Formal taxes
Satrapies
"Eyes and ears of the king"
Political stability
Xerxes' policies led to rebellion and discontent
Persian Wars
Alexander burned Persopolis
Major Contributions
3 periods
Agriculture and trade- Rise
Class divisions and political factions- Fall

Seleucid
Seleucids after Alexander
Funded new cities, attracted Greek colonists
Retained Achaemenid administration, lost territory
Overthrown by Parthians- heavy cavalry
Parthians
Achaemenid administration but more decentralized
Mithrades I reestablished empire
Persian Sasanids overthrew
Sasanids
Part of Islamic empire (c. 651 CE)
Allowed Christianity to spread, become major world religion

Republican government set precedent
Octavian, First Emperor of Rome
Pataliputra, Mauryan Capital
Ashoka the Great
Trade
Agriculture based economy
Trade throughout empire- India to Egypt
Standardized currency, roads, open markets and banks
Society
Societal divisions by occupation
Zoroastrianism popular
Declined during Seleucids
Revived during Parthian and Sasnid
Buddhism, Christianity, Manichaesim, Judaism
Parthian cavalry
Kingdom of Magadha
Filled power vaccuum after Alexander
Chandragupta Maurya: founder
Bactria to Ganges
Ashoka the Great: warrior, then peacful ruler
Centralized bureaucracy
Declined due to financial problems
Administrative costs higher than revenue
Eventual Indo-Greek rule
Guptas revived empire
Trade
Towns with active marketplaces- Ganges
Indian Ocean, Persian, Mediterranean trade
Specialization led to new social classes
Society
Patriarchal families and child marriage
Caste system
Jati
Vaishyas
and
Shudras
- more wealthy
Jainism rose as social challenge
Buddhism as promoted religion- Ashoka
New administrative structure
Used by other empires years afterwards
Rule of different peoples and religions
Iron pillar errected by Ashoka
Full transcript