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The Age of Empire
Transcript of The Age of Empire
Aparna Mahendranath and Hasna Karim
The Han Empire
The Roman Empire
The Persian Empire(s)
The Mauryan Empire
The Gupta Empire
Republic to Empire
Contributions and Lasting Impacts
Iron Industry Increase
Manufactured goods- trade and military
Long distance relations
The Macedonian Empire
Period of Decline
Han Wudi-repay expenses
Taxes and confiscated land
Wang Mang (9 CE)
Limited amount of land a family could hold
Broke up large estates
Poor harvests, famine, revolts
23 CE died and ended rule
Roman Economy and Society
Fall of Rome
Hindu Based- but tolerated other religions
Chandra Gupta- Founder
Dynamic (320-415 CE)
Samudra Gupta (335 CE)
Chandra Gupta II (375 CE)
Conquered & Tributary Alliances
Latifundia system- crops for export
City of Rome became extremely wealthy
Silk roads trade
Socially stratified society: patricians and plebians
Heavy Greek philosophical influence
Religions: Roman deities, Mithraism, eventually Christianity
Fall of the Gupta
Allies controlled various regions
Nomadic Invasions- split
Repelled...defense costly and weakening
Huns' kingdom in North and West
"Gupta" regional kingdoms (550 CE)
Rise of the Gupta
Tried to imitate Former Han
BUT DID NOT FIX LAND DISTRIBUTION
Caused internal decay
Uprisings-2nd and 3rd Century
Factions and War
4 Centuries of regional kingdoms
Golden Age of Pericles
Delian League and Peloponnesian League= Peloponnesian War
Phillip III- Macedon
Respected Greek Culture
Alex the Great: Phillip III’s son
Expanded Macedonian dominance
After overhthrow of Etruscan kings, republican constitution
Consuls, Senate- patrician dominated
Tribunes to appease plebs
Republic not designed for large empire
Civil war- Gaius Marius vs. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Marius- land redistribution
Sulla- conservative and aristocratic ally
Julius Caesar- foundations of empire
Octavian- first real emperor
The Achaemenid Empire
Seleucids, Parthians, and Sasanids
Trade, Society, and Religion
Rise and Fall of the Mauryans
Trade, Society, Religion
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Fell after Alex the Great
Focus shifted and Romans rose
Internal decay- "barracks emperors"
Empire split into East and West by Diocletian
Germanic invasion and migration
Invasion of the Huns
Collapse of Western Roman Empire
Eastern Roman continued as Byzantine
Adopted and spread globally
3 Hellenistic Empires
Control over Conquering
Cyrus the Shepard established empire (c. 548 BCE)
Darius the Great- expanded empire, introduced new administrative techniques, new capital
"Eyes and ears of the king"
Xerxes' policies led to rebellion and discontent
Alexander burned Persopolis
Agriculture and trade- Rise
Class divisions and political factions- Fall
Seleucids after Alexander
Funded new cities, attracted Greek colonists
Retained Achaemenid administration, lost territory
Overthrown by Parthians- heavy cavalry
Achaemenid administration but more decentralized
Mithrades I reestablished empire
Persian Sasanids overthrew
Part of Islamic empire (c. 651 CE)
Allowed Christianity to spread, become major world religion
Republican government set precedent
Octavian, First Emperor of Rome
Pataliputra, Mauryan Capital
Ashoka the Great
Agriculture based economy
Trade throughout empire- India to Egypt
Standardized currency, roads, open markets and banks
Societal divisions by occupation
Declined during Seleucids
Revived during Parthian and Sasnid
Buddhism, Christianity, Manichaesim, Judaism
Kingdom of Magadha
Filled power vaccuum after Alexander
Chandragupta Maurya: founder
Bactria to Ganges
Ashoka the Great: warrior, then peacful ruler
Declined due to financial problems
Administrative costs higher than revenue
Eventual Indo-Greek rule
Guptas revived empire
Towns with active marketplaces- Ganges
Indian Ocean, Persian, Mediterranean trade
Specialization led to new social classes
Patriarchal families and child marriage
- more wealthy
Jainism rose as social challenge
Buddhism as promoted religion- Ashoka
New administrative structure
Used by other empires years afterwards
Rule of different peoples and religions
Iron pillar errected by Ashoka