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Augmented Reality

Prezi is simple: You Write, Zoom, Arrange.Using these simple means, you can express many things - with great impact.Here are some basic examples such as timelines, TOC, Zen likes.

tanya kanodia

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Augmented Reality

& markets AR= Real World +Virtual Layer Military Applications of AR augmented ?? Education Augmented reality adds graphics, sounds, haptic feedback and smell to the natural world as it exists.
The basic idea of augmented reality is to superimpose graphics, audio and other sensory enhancements over a real-world environment in real time. Types of
reality... types TIME LINE Future Of Augmented
Reality... Slides... You can leave the path any time, zoom out, show something related, respond to a comment
- and return to your path by simply clicking next! Or click on another Path element to continue from there An augmented reality system generates a composite view for the user that is the combination of the real scene viewed by the user and a virtual scene generated by the computer that augments the scene with additional information. The virtual scene generated by the computer is designed to enhance the user's sensory perception of the virtual world they are seeing or interacting with. The goal of Augmented Reality is to create a system in which the user cannot tell the difference between the real world and the virtual augmentation of it. Lets learn about
augumented reality Augumented reality is
a link
real & virtual
world AUGMENTED REALITY is a type of virtual reality that aims to duplicate the world's environment in a computer.  Augmented
Reality AR Components:-
Hardware :- Software :-
mobile device > local application
camera > web services
display screen > content servers
compass etc. One more thing... One more thing....if you want a strong finale, a large zoom out effect at the end is one solution. Then you can reveal that this whole time we were moving around inside a car, television, or the mind of Porky Pig! Augmenting our world 1957- Sensorama Morton Heilig, a cinematographer, creates and patents a simulator called Sensorama with visuals, sound, vibration, and smell. 1975- Videoplace Myron Krueger creates Videoplace to allow users to interact with virtual objects for the first time. 1989 – Virtual Reality  Jaron Lanier coins the phrase Virtual Reality and creates the first commercial business around virtual worlds. 1990 – Augmented Reality Tom Caudell coins the phrase 'Augmented Reality' while at Boeing helping workers assemble cables into aircraft 1999 - ARToolkit : Hirokazu Kato created ARToolKit at HITLab, where AR later was further developed by other HITLab scientists, demonstrating it at SIGGRAPH. 2009 – FLAR Toolkit AR Toolkit was ported to Adobe Flash (FLARToolkit) by Saqoosha, bringing augmented reality to the web browser. ARToolKit uses computer vision algorithms to solve this problem. The ARToolKit video tracking libraries calculate the real camera position and orientation relative to physical markers in real time. This enables the easy development of a wide range of Augmented Reality applications. Some of the features of ARToolKit include:

Single camera position/orientation tracking.
Tracking code that uses simple black squares.
The ability to use any square marker patterns.
Easy camera calibration code.
Fast enough for real time AR applications.
SGI IRIX, Linux, MacOS and Windows OS distributions.
Distributed with complete source code. Virtual reality (VR),is a term that applies to computer-simulated environments that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. Some advanced, haptic systems now include tactile information, generally known as force feedback, in medical and gaming applications. What is FLARToolKit

AS3 ported version of ARToolKit.
Actually, FLARToolKit is based on NyARToolkit, Java ported version of ARToolKit.
FLARToolKit recognize the marker from input image. and calculate its orientation and position in 3D world.
You should draw 3D graphics by your own.
But helper classes for major flash 3D engines (Papervision3D, Away3D, Sandy, Alternativa3D) are included.
Papervision3D is used in starter-kit. AR Marker
based Markerless
layar Augmented
vision This type of AR uses a camera and a visual marker baked into the content that a marketer wants to present. The viewer holds up the content to the camera to see the AR in action. Markerless augmented reality is very similar to marker-based systems like ARToolkit with one major difference - such technology use real object as a target for augmentation. It can be almost any kind of objects - photos, logos, beer bottle or Cola can. The common pipeline is very trivial:
Estimate transformation between real-world target and virtual camera.
Render virtual objects using estimated transformation
find a target on video frame. Actually, algorithm you will use depends on the kind of a target. Marker Detection
Algorithm Maximum allowed distance Optimization Algorithm Finding Edgels (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr The algorithm consists of three main steps.

Edgels are detected and are linked together.Then the line segments are merged in order to obtain longer lines.

All detected lines are extended based on gradient information, full length lines are formed.

Finally these are grouped into quadrangles. The candidate points for lines are called edgels.
To avoid processing of all pixels, image detection is done on a sampling grid.
The sampling grid is usually rectangular and consists of widely spaced horizontal and vertical scanlines, and other directions for
the scanlines are also possible
On each of these scanlines lines are detected if there is a sharp change in the colour at the two sides of the line.

The orientation (the angle made) of each edgel is calculated (= arctan(Δy/Δx). Second Stage Straight line segments found on the basis
of the edgels found in the first stage
Two randomly chosen edgels, whose orientations are compatible with the line connecting them.
To count as a supporting edgel for a line segment the edgel must lie close to the considered line and have an orientation compatible with it. All frames are not scanned completely
We track markers. Previous marker positions are used to guide the line detection process. All except first frame are processed partially.
Line detection is only performed in image regions that contained a marker in the previous frame. Thresh hold important:- Quadraple Detection (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Last step in marker detection.
Corner points of intersecting lines are detected. Quadrangle Construction If four corners have been detected thus the marker is detected
But if less than four corners have been detected then the quadrangle must be completed. Merging of Line Segments Two line segments are merged if they meet following criteria.
Orientations must be compatible.
Only line segment pairs that have an orientation difference smaller than some threshold value.
To avoid joining of parallel not connected line segments, the joining line also must have similar orientation Threshold value for the maximum allowed distance. Small value results in gaps. Great value leads to merging of exterior line segments first.
Line segments with shorter joining line are merged first before joining line segments with longer joining line. Line Extension Usually there is a short piece missing at both ends of a line. All lines extended straight to receive lines of full length.
Line segment extended till change in gradient orientation Extension process hindered by slight deviations.
Purely straight extionsion not feasible due to camera distortions and improper marker file.
Deviations are compensated by consider points lying perpendiculary as show in figure If three corners detected the fourth corner can be estimated by simply intersecting the two lines that are adjacent to the gap.
If two corners have been detected. Quadrangle completed by connecting the two open ends of the line chain.

Accuract depends on the precision of the two lines that have been connected. To improve the detection further automatic threshold techniques are used which sets the threshold automatically according to the changing lightening conditions
After having one or more markers detected in a video, the median of all extracted marker pixels is calculated and used as threshold for the detection process in the next video frame.
If no marker has been found, a randomized threshold is used until a new marker is detected. Medical There have been really interesting advances in medical application of augmented reality. Medical students use the technology to practice surgery in a controlled environment. Visualizations aid in explaining complex medical conditions to patients. Augmented reality can reduce the risk of an operation by giving the surgeon improved sensory perception. This technology can be combined with MRI or X-ray systems and bring everything into a single view for the surgeon.

Neurosurgery is at the forefront when it comes to surgical applications of augmented reality. The ability to image the brain in 3D on top of the patient's actual anatomy is very powerful for the surgeon. Since the brain is somewhat fixed compared to other parts of the body, the registration of exact coordinates can be achieved. Concern still exists surrounding the movement of tissue during surgery. This can affect the exact positioning required for augmented reality to work. Augmented reality can be applied so that the surgical team can see the CT or MRI data correctly registered on the patient in the operating theater while the procedure is progressing. Being able to accurately register the images at this point will enhance the performance of the surgical team and eliminate the need for the painful and cumbersome stereotactic frames shown in Figure 3 that are currently used for registration. Industrial When the maintenance technician approaches a new or unfamiliar piece of equipment instead of opening several repair manuals they could put on an augmented reality display. In this display the image of the equipment would be augmented with annotations and information pertinent to the repair. For example, the location of fasteners and attachment hardware that must be removed would be highlighted. Then the inside view of the machine would highlight the boards that need to be replaced (Feiner, MacIntyre et al. 1993; Uenohara and Kanade 1995). An example of augmented reality being used for maintenance can be seen at (Feiner 1995). The military has developed a wireless vest worn by personnel that is attached to an optical see-through display (Urban 1995). The wireless connection allows the soldier to access repair manuals and images of the equipment. Future versions might register those images on the live scene and provide animation to show the procedures that must be performed.

Boeing researchers are developing an augmented reality display to replace the large work frames used for making wiring harnesses for their aircraft (Caudell 1994; Sims 1994). Using this experimental system, the technicians are guided by the augmented display that shows the routing of the cables on a generic frame used for all harnesses. The augmented display allows a single fixture to be used for making the multiple harnesses. A simple form of augmented reality has been in use in the entertainment and news business for quite some time. Whenever you are watching the evening weather report the weather reporter is shown standing in front of changing weather maps. In the studio the reporter is actually standing in front of a blue or green screen. This real image is augmented with computer generated maps using a technique called chroma-keying. It is also possible to create a virtual studio environment so that the actors can appear to be positioned in a studio with computer generated decorating. Examples of using this technique can be found at (Schmidt 1996; Schmidt 1996b).

Movie special effects make use of digital compositing to create illusions (Pyros and Goren 1995). Strictly speaking with current technology this may not be considered augmented reality because it is not generated in real-time. Most special effects are created off-line, frame by frame with a substantial amount of user interaction and computer graphics system rendering. But some work is progressing in computer analysis of the live action images to determine the camera parameters and use this to drive the generation of the virtual graphics objects to be merged (Zorpette 1994).

Princeton Electronic Billboard has developed an augmented reality system that allows broadcasters to insert advertisements into specific areas of the broadcast image (National Association of Broadcasters 1994). For example, while broadcasting a baseball game this system would be able to place an advertisement in the image so that it appears on the outfield wall of the stadium. The electronic billboard requires calibration to the stadium by taking images from typical camera angles and zoom settings in order to build a map of the stadium including the locations in the images where advertisements will be inserted. By using pre-specified reference points in the stadium, the system automatically determines the camera angle being used and referring to the pre-defined stadium map inserts the advertisement into the correct place. The military has been using displays in cockpits that present information to the pilot on the windshield of the cockpit or the visor of their flight helmet. This is a form of augmented reality display. SIMNET, a distributed war games simulation system, is also embracing augmented reality technology. By equipping military personnel with helmet mounted visor displays or a special purpose rangefinder (Urban 1995) the activities of other units participating in the exercise can be imaged. While looking at the horizon, for example, the display equipped soldier could see a helicopter rising above the tree line (Metzger 1993). This helicopter could be being flown in simulation by another participant. In wartime, the display of the real battlefield scene could be augmented with annotation information or highlighting to emphasize hidden enemy units. Augmented Reality appeals to constructivist notions of education where students take control of their own learning, and interact with the real and virtual environments. In learning situations that are partly virtual like AR, students can manipulate objects that are not real, and learn tasks and skills. The benefit with AR learning is that there are no "real" errors. For example, if a firefighter learns how to fight various types of fires, or a surgeon learns laparoscopic surgery in an augmented reality situation, there are no real consequences if mistakes are made during training. These types of training provide opportunities for more authentic learning and appeal to multiple learning styles. Augmented Reality applications that can enhance textbooks too have the power to engage a reader in ways that have never been possible. A field trip to a museum or historic locale with a group of classmates, using AR applications can provide each student with his/her own unique discovery path. MIT's Teacher Education program and The Education Arcade are working on an number of AR games using handheld devices. Participants are placed in lifelike environments with GPS enabled devices that trigger virtual media and information. The MIT's program goal is to allow students to experience realistic situations, interact with other students, move throughout the real environment, discover information and solve complex problems in an engaging way.Student may be environmental detectives, zoo scene investigators, or they may solve a fictional crime or discover information about illegal wildlife trade. Augmented Reality in Sciences and Math

In 2003 Kaufmann and Schmalstieg in the study Mathematics and Geometry Education with Collaborative Augmented Reality, investigated how an AR system called Studierstube improved spatial abilities and transfer of learning of math and geometric objects. They suggest that the system encouraged experimentation and improved spatial skills. PRESENTATION BY:-
Rachit Kr Singh
Roll No : 2K11/CO/085
Sparsh Priyadarshi
Roll No : 2K11/CO/111

THANK YOU :) use is easier: marketers can use existing graphics to present their AR ads and consumers can view them easily. What's more, the iPhone 4.0 camera can render markerless AR technology for even more easy viewing. An example of markerless AR in action is Ben & Jerry's Moo Vision feature in its iPhone app. With this app, viewers point their iPhone cameras at the lid of one of several qualifying pints of B&J's ice cream, and, after a few seconds, they're staring at the lid with an odd 3D image at top of it. In this type of AR
goggles, earpiece and such instruments are used to acheive augmented vision!! You can see the live world with modifications in it!!
It's of great importance and
largely under application!! Google Glasses First Look: Would You Wear These Augmented
Reality Specs?

We first heard rumors about Google's augmented reality glasses a
few months ago, and now in a post on Google Plus, the company
revealed "Project Glass" along with some early concepts and prototype designs. These specs look like the freaky science fiction concept they are. Would you wear them, though?

Watch this video of what the world would look like from behind these glasses. It's like Iron Man except instead of important world-saving information you're answering your friend's text messages and learning about delays on the subway. The Google[x] team that's working on the project says they've opened it up to the public to solicit ideas about what people actually want from a set of augmented reality specs.

From what we can see in the video, Google Glasses basically seem like a smartphone notification system that allows you to respond to notifications in with your voice. Without actually trying the glasses on, the experience seems like something not only useful, but enjoyable. People might actually wear them if they can get over how nerdy they look.
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