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Unit 1&2 APWH
Transcript of Unit 1&2 APWH
by: Easton Leath, Taylor Silva, Alora Kingsbury, Tyler Sargent, Taylor Cargile, Tanna Mercado, and Miranda Dodd
In the Paleolithic era, the people started out as nomadic and used the hunter-gatherer system. Later, these nomadic people began to settle and created small empires. such as:
Indus Valley Civilization
Most of these people settled in areas near lakes and rivers, providing them food and water.
These Empires started using agriculture and began to form hierarchies and caste systems, as well as creating different beliefs such as:
Critical Key Ideas
Compare and Contrast
Timeline of the Early World
Multiple Choice Questions
Continuity and Change
1. What was the main reason people began settling down in the Neolithic Age?
A) Religious beliefs
B) The cultivation of plants and the domestication of animals
C) The control of fire
D) Migration decreased birth rates and increased death rates
E) As the environment changed, migration became increasingly difficult
1. B) In the Neolithic Era, the agricultural revolution sparked new found ideas in the cultivation of plants and domestication of animals which encouraged migratory peoples to settle down.
2. The first civilizations, such as Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Olmecs, were
A) highly competitive over natural resources
B) Religious based rulings
C) Skilled in the art of hunting and gathering
D) intricately connected through trade
E) Complex state systems that specialized in labor
E) All of the civilizations of this time had complex state systems that produced agricultural surpluses, which permitted the specialization of labor.
3. The Persians and Greeks differed in all of the following ways EXCEPT
A) They both were Indo-European people whose early history drew on the legacy of the first civilizations
B) They both were small competing city-states
C) They both participated in political life which brought about a sense of citizenship
D) Both empires expanded through conquest
E) They both were monarchical empires that relied on monarchs, or kings, to rule
A) The Persian and Greek empires, located in parts of Europe, arose through the ideas and culture of previous civilizations.
4. All of the following were river valley civilizations EXCEPT
A) Shang China
E) Indus Valley
C) The Olmecs civilization was located in present day Mexico, and was not near a major river water source as the river valley civilizations.
5. What idea do Confucianism and Hinduism have in common?
A) The Values of Scholars
B) The caste system
C) Respect for adults and ancestors
E) Living a moral life
A) Scholars were thought to be well educated and served a major purpose in the beliefs and worships of Confucianism and Hinduism
563-479 B.C.E- Life of Buddha
Siddhartha Gautama was an
influential man who's ideals started
551-479 B.C.E.- Life of Confucius
Confucius believed in strict order and social stratus, his religion was composed of knowledge
200 B.C.E.- 200 C.E. High point of the Roman Empire
The Roman empire is known for its powerful empire during the Classical Era of the early world.
4 B.C.E.- early 30's C.E.- Life of Jesus
Influential to people of the Christian faith.
Jesus has a lasting impact on the
world today & is still talked about
often and also believed in.
300- 800 C.E. Mayan Empire Important to remember that although the Americas
werent a huge factor yet,
they were still creating
Prompt: Compare early civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia
TH: From 3500 BCE to around 500 BCE, civilization in both Mesopotamia and Egypt existed in river valleys; however, due to drastically different behavior of their respective rivers, these civilizations developed differing beliefs and constructed dissimilar political hierarchies.
P1: Environment and Beliefs
TS: While both Mesopotamia and Egypt developed along rivers, the differences in the behavior of these two resources in turn created differences in life and the beliefs of these two civilizations.
E: Mesopotamia-Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Egypt-Nile River
A: Since rivers provided the resources and nutrients necessary for agriculture both civilizations developed in river valleys.
E: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers-Violent and unpredictable flooding, difficult for agriculture, Nile River-Predictable and stable flooding, good for agriculture
A: The differing behaviors of each civilization's rivers made agriculture more difficult in Mesopotamia than in Egypt, leading to different lifestyles and beliefs.
E: Mesopotamia-viewed humankind as caught in an inherently disorderly world, subject to the control of quarreling, fickle gods, Egypt-Rebirth of the sun everyday meant life always prevails over death
A: The darker idea of life in Mesopotamia as compared to Egypt came as a direct result of the differing environments that these two sets of beliefs developed in.
P2: Political Structures
TS: Both Mesopotamia and Egypt experienced political unity sometime in their history; however, the sources of this unity and the times of arrival were very different
E: Mesopotamia-The Akkadians, the Babylonians, and finally the Assyrians conquered city states and created unity, Egypt-several earlier states merged into a unified territory that became Egypt
A: As time went on both Mesopotamia and Egypt existed as civilizations in unity.
E: Mesopotamia-conquered to create unity, Egypt-merged earlier states as one to form a unified Egypt
A: In Mesopotamia, unlike Egypt, unity was brought from the outside from the conquering peoples into what was the Sumerian city states. Egypt was created in unity.
E: Mesopotamia-existed for over a thousand years as the warring, independent Sumerian city states, Egypt- began its history as a unified state
A: Due to their different sources of unity, Egypt and Mesopotamia experienced this unity at different times in their respective histories.
Prompt: Compare classical Roman civilization with Han dynasty China
TH: In the classical era, both Rome and Han China rose as influential empires in Eurasia that invested heavily in state projects and eventually collapsed; however they rose out of different circumstances and experienced different outcomes of collapse.
P1-Rise and Golden Age of Empires
TS- While both Rome and Han China became powerful Eurasian empires that invested in state projects in their golden ages, the circumstances that they rose from and the steps they took to become empires differed greatly.
E-Rome and Han China occupied around 1.5 million square miles and encompassed populations around 50-60 million people
A-The large sizes and populations of these two states portray them as influential empires.
E-Both Rome and Han China experienced golden ages from around 200 BCE to 200 CE in which they invested extensively in state projects such as building roads and irrigation.
A-The size and influence of these two empires allowed them to experience golden ages and to experiment with state projects.
E-Rome-began as a city state, progressed to republic and finally to empire, Han China-Previous Chinese states preceded the Han dynasty, built from a warring states period
A-Due to the existence of previous Chinese dynasties, Han China was better able to procede directly to the empire stage than the Roman empire, which was created new from a city state and was a republic before it became an empire.
P2-Collapse of Empires
TS-Eventually both the Roman empire and Han China collapsed, due in part to the threat of nomadic tribes outside of the empires; however, the results of these collapses were quite different
E-Rome-collapsed in 476 CE after Germanic tribes overthrew the Western Emperor, China-collapsed in 220 CE in part due to the threat of the Xiongnu tribe
A-Due to many reasons, both of these empires became unstable and collapsed. One reason they shared was the influence of nomadic tribes threatening at their borders.
E-Rome-only the Western half collapsed, East continued Roman tradition as the Byzantine Empire, China-collapsed as a whole into a period of disunity, later reunited.
A-Because Rome was divided between to emperors at the time of its collapse, the eastern half was able to retain stablilty after the collapse. Meanwhile, in China after the collapse of the Han dynasty there was a period of widespread disunity, the whole empire collapsed. China was too able to find stability eventually as it was reunited by the Sui dynasty.
Human people started in East Africa
Moved in migrations to populate the world
Due to agricultural surplus, and in turn job specialization, trade began
Humans were in environmentally challenging areas, which led to adaption and creation of tools
Througout the era, people went from hunter-gatherer based societies to settled agricultural societies
At the start of human population, religon was mostly animistic
Changed to more polytheistic religions and philosophies
Many architectural advances such as walls, the pyramids, and temples
As cities grew, hierarchies grew and autocracies were formed
Mainly autocracies for forms of governement
Not much social tension in nomadic societies
Patriarchy began to form in agricultural societies
Nomadic societies gathered food and moved on
Agricultural societies began to make a surplus of food used for trading
Prompt: Describe the rise of the Greek rationalists during the classical era
E: Domestication of plants
A: This created a greater amount of food and allowed for settled socites
E: Domestication of animals
A:Created easier transportation and improved faming abilities
E: Allowed for meteal working
A: created metal tools that helped with warfare and agricultral
A: Gave people power and say in the government
E: Strong millitary
A: Created strong strong armies that could defend there countries
E: Modern ideas
A: Creation of democracy
Prompt: Describe the rise of agricultual societies during the paleolithic era
Roman Empire founded
Mandate of Heaven in China
Trade between empires close to each other ex. Rome and Persian Empire
Patriarchy takes shape in Rome and Middle East
China - Confucianism and filial piety
Hellenistic era - Greek culture spreading to other lands
Smaller agricultural societies develop into large empires
Rome builds roads, aqueducts, and temples
Great Wall of China
Christianity emerges with the birth of Jesus
Confucius in China
Muhammad creates Islam
People mostly settled in empires
Some nomads still use pastoral farming methods