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Transcript of Meteorology
*Moisture THis is what is in the Earth’s Atmosphere:
1% Everything Else
Aerosols--suspended solid & liquid particles in the atmosphere
Ozone--(O3) absorbs harmful UV radiation & damaged by CFC’s. Troposphere - This is the bottom layer where we live. Stratosphere--The second layer Mesosphere- The third layer Each of these have different jobs... Thermosphere-- The fourth layer Direct Sunlight- This Energy causes more HEAT and It occurs most often at the equator. Indirect Sunlight- This is Energy that does not produce as much heat. Sun gives off light energy because of nuclear fusion. (Fusing of 2 hydrogen atoms into a single helium atom) *Atmosphere absorbs most of the radiation.
*Ground absorbs the rest. Conduction- direct transfer of heat energy from one substance to another substance.
*The warmth of the Earth’s surface slightly warms the air that it comes into contact with. Convection--the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid
**Warm air rises, cold air sinks “Greenhouse Effect”- CO2 collects in the atmosphere & traps in heat energy at the surface of the earth. Air has mass, so its weight pushes down on causing pressure on the earth. *Movement of air:
Warm air expands, making it less dense so it rises causing low air pressure. Warm air holds more moisture. Colder air contracts, making it more dense so it sinks causing high air pressure. Cold air holds less moisture! Low air Pressure is usually associated with cloudy, rainy weather. High air Pressure is usually associated with good or fair weather. Barometer measures the change in air pressure in either millibars or millimeters/inches of mercury. Wind: movement of air from one place to another Air moves from an high pressure to low pressure. Global Winds
* These are created by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, difference in air pressure& the Earth’s rotation. Coriolis Effect:
Due to the Earth’s rotation, moving objects like air and water will shift in a certain direction. Trade Winds – These are winds that blow from east to west on either side of the equator. They are separated by the Doldrums Prevailing Westerlies – These are winds that blow from west to east between 30o & 60o north & south latitudes Polar Easterlies - These are winds that blow from east to west in the polar regions. A Jet Stream is a narrow stream of high pressure wind found in the lower stratosphere. Jet Streams push large air masses across the globe. Humidity is the measure of the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere. Specific Humidity is the measure of the actual mass of water vapor in a given mass of air. Relative Humidity is the ratio or percentage of the actual amount of water vapor in a given mass of air, compared to the maximum amount of water vapor that air can hold at a certain temperature. Psychrometer is a type of hygrometer that has a wet bulb thermometer & a dry bulb thermometer Dew Point Temperature is the temperature to which air has to be cooled in order to be completely saturated with water. Clouds are suspended droplets of water that collect on aerosols. The formation of clouds depend on the amount of moisture and aerosols in the air, the air temperature, and the stability of the air A cirrus is a high clouds that are thin & wispy. It is Made of ice crystals. Stratus are low leveled clouds that have a layered look. Cumulus are large, fluffy clouds of vertical development. Precipitation
* Rain freezes into an ice pellet as it falls through freezing air. Freezing Rain
*Rain falls to the ground and freezes on the surface. Snow forms when cloud droplets freeze in the clouds and stick together forming flakes. Air masses are a large body of air that are the same throughout. Maritime Polar forms over the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Maritime Tropical forms near the equator and it brings warm, moist air. Continental Polar forms over northern Canada. It also brings cold, dry air. Continental Tropical forms over land in Mexico. It also brings hot, dry air. Fronts are the boundary where two air masses collide. Fronts are named for it's aggressive air mass. ...Cold Fronts...
*Fast in speed.
*Form cumulus clouds.
*Narrow frontal zone
*Short, severe weather Warm air mass- it overtakes and moves over a cold air mass. Stationary Front happen when neither air mass moves Occluded Front is when a cold front catches up with a warm front and overtakes it A dry line is when dry air invades moist air. SEVERE WEATHER:
*Weather that can be considered life threatening *weather that can cause damage to buildings
*Includes thunderstorms, lightning, tornadoes, flooding, hurricanes, and more... Watches are issued when the conditions for a certain type of severe weather are possible, but not necessarily occurring at the moment. A warning is issued in a specific area where a type of severe weather is occurring at that given moment. Thunderstorms are fast moving rainstorms that can produce strong winds, hail, heavy rainfall, lightning, and tornadoes. Lightning is static electricity caused by the separation of electrical charges by the collisions of rain drops and strong winds. Thunder is the heat generated by the lightning bolt superheats the surrounding air causing it to expand so rapidly that it causes a sonic boom. *Tornadoes
*are funnels of high speed circulating winds
*high winds & updrafts collide creating a circulating low pressure.
*the cloud begins to lower right below the cloud base TheTornado's low pressure extends to the ground picking up dust & debris which forms a tornado. Hurricanes are a tropical cyclone that has a low pressure center with several rotating thunderstorms and strong winds around it. Hurricanes start as tropical depressions over warm water in the oceans. The storm builds strength as it travels over the warm water. Flooding kills more people in the United States than any other type of severe weather. Floods are caused by way too much rain over an extended period of time. It also causes lakes, streams, rivers, and more... to overflow. Flash floooding is flooding that mainly occurs in towns or cities. Flah Flooding is a rainstorm that dumps several inches of rain over a short period of time. ...These notes were all written by Mr. Porter! By: Keely Davis Meteorology