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Epidemiology

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by

Julie Harless

on 6 June 2016

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Transcript of Epidemiology

Terminology
John Snow and the Ghost Map
Florence Nightingale
Semmelweis and child-bed fever
Epidemiological Studies
Frequency
Distribution
Sporadic
Endemic
Outbreak
Epidemic
Pandemic
Communicable
Reservoir
Tools
Graphs
Observational
who, where, when
Current Epidemiology
Emerging diseases
globalization, zoonoses, humans, nature
Transmission
Direct
Contact -- droplets, people, animals
Epidemiology
Maps
Analytical
how, why
Experimental
cause and effect
Controls
Cohort
Case control
Retrospective
Prospective
Indirect
Vehicle -- air, water, food, fomite
Vector -- biological, mechanical
Nosocomial infections
Survielence
Anthrax
Arboviral diseases, neuroinvasive and non-neuroinvasive
California Serogroup Virus Diseases
Chikungunya Virus Disease
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease
Powassan Virus Disease
St. Louis Encephalitis Virus Disease
West Nile Virus Disease
Western Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease
Babesiosis
Botulism
Brucellosis
Campylobacteriosis
Chancroid
Chlamydia trachomatis infection
Cholera
Coccidioidomycosis / Valley Fever
Congenital Syphilis
Cryptosporidiosis
Cyclosporiasis
Dengue virus infections
Dengue
Dengue-like illness
Diphtheria
Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection
Ehrlichia chaffeensis Infection
Ehrlichia ewingii Infection
Undetermined Human Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis
Giardiasis
Gonorrhea
Haemophilus influenzae, invasive disease
Hansen's disease / Leprosy
Hantavirus infection, non-Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, post-diarrheal (HUS)
Hepatitis A, acute
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
HIV Infection (AIDS has been reclassified as HIV Stage III) (AIDS/HIV)
Influenza-associated pediatric mortality
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) / Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive Disease
Legionellosis / Legionnaire's Disease or Pontiac fever
Leptospirosis
Listeriosis
Lyme disease
Malaria
Measles / Rubeola
Meningococcal disease
Mumps
Novel influenza A virus infections
Pertussis / Whooping Cough
Plague
Poliomyelitis
Psittacosis / Ornithosis
Q fever
Rabies, animal
Rabies, human
Rubella / German Measles
Salmonellosis
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Associated Coronavirus Disease (SARS)
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)
Shigellosis
Smallpox / Variola
Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS)
Syphilis
Syphilitic Stillbirth
Tetanus / c. tetani
Toxic shock syndrome (other than Streptococcal) (TSS)
Trichinellosis / Trichinosis
Tuberculosis (TB)
Tularemia
Typhoid fever
Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA/VRSA)
Varicella / Chickenpox
Varicella deaths
Vibriosis
Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF)
Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus
Ebola virus
Lassa virus
Lujo virus
Marburg virus
New World Arenavirus – Guanarito virus
New World Arenavirus – Junin virus
New World Arenavirus – Machupo virus
New World Arenavirus – Sabia virus
Yellow fever
Zika Virus Disease and Zika Virus, Congenital Infection
Zika Virus Disease
Zika Virus, Congenital Infection

Results
gap minder
http://www.gapminder.org/world/#$majorMode=chart$is;shi=t;ly=2003;lb=f;il=t;fs=11;al=30;stl=t;st=t;nsl=t;se=t$wst;tts=C$ts;sp=5.59290322580644;ti=1820$zpv;v=0$inc_x;mmid=XCOORDS;iid=phAwcNAVuyj1jiMAkmq1iMg;by=ind$inc_y;mmid=YCOORDS;iid=phAwcNAVuyj2tPLxKvvnNPA;by=ind$inc_s;uniValue=8.21;iid=phAwcNAVuyj0XOoBL_n5tAQ;by=ind$inc_c;uniValue=255;gid=CATID0;by=grp$map_x;scale=log;dataMin=194;dataMax=96846$map_y;scale=lin;dataMin=23;dataMax=86$map_s;sma=49;smi=2.65$cd;bd=0$inds=;modified=60
Results of Epidemiological Studies
Analytical
Relationship between exposure and outcome
Not cause and effect
Relative risk
Measure of incidence
Prospective studies
Total population is known
Odds ratio
Estimate when total population is unknown
Experimental
Cause and effect
Strength of association
Consistency
Temporality
Plausibility
Dose response

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