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AP Lit Vocab Wks 14-15
Transcript of AP Lit Vocab Wks 14-15
2. Complex Sentence
A concrete presentation of an abstract idea with at least two levels of meaning: 1) The surface story line and 2) the lesson (moral, political, philosophical, or religious).
- A sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent (or subordinate) clause.
If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer (Henry David Thoreau).
The path to my fixed purpose is laid on iron rails, on which my soul is grooved to run (Herman Melville).
4. Flat Character
Harsh, discordant sounds. Some scholars use the terms dissonance and cacophony synonymously, but others differentiate them, using the latter to refer to harsh or discordant sounds themselves and the former to refer to the use of cacophony to achieve a specific effect.
Dissonance in "The Lay of Ike," the twenty-third of John Berryman's
77 Dream Songs
(1964), signals political opposition to President Dwight D. Eisenhower:
This is the lay of Ike.
Here's to the glory of the Great White--awk--
who has been running--er--er--things in recent--ech--
in the United--If your screen is black,
ladies & gentlemen, we--I like--
at the Point he was already terrific--sick
Flat Character -
Flat characters lack depth and complexity. They tend to be caricatures defined by a single idea or quality whose essences can be summed up in a sentence.
Jargon - The use of specific phrases and words by writers in a particular situation, profession or trade. These specialized terms are used to convey hidden meanings accepted and understood in that field.
Narrative - A story or telling of a story, or an account of a situation or event. Narratives may be fictional or nonfictional. They may be written in either prose or verse.
Some critics use the term even more generally for instance, in
The content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation
(1987), narratologist Hayden White called narrative "a meta-code, a human universal on the basis of which transcultural messages about the nature of a shared reality can be transmitted."
Scansion - The analysis, typically using visual symbols, of poetic meter, the more or less regular patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables found in verse.
Meter is typically described in one of the following three ways: by the dominant type of foot (a poetic line's rhythmic unit, containing two or more syllables), the number of feet per line, or both.
Critics "scan" lines to determine a poem's predominant metrical pattern and to discover deviations from that pattern.
Spondee - A metrical foot in poetry that consists of two
syllables. The use of spondee as the base, or predominant, foot of a poem is rare:
Example:The first stanza of Dylan Thomas's poem "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night" (1952) is heavily spondaic:
Do not go gen
tle into that
Old age should burn
and rave at close of day;
against the dying of the light.
Example: John Bunyan's
(1678) is the most famous English allegory. On the surface, it tells the story of a man named Christian who journeys from one city to another, but on a deeper level, the problems he encounters represent obstacles that a good Christian must overcome to live a godly life. Christian encounters such flagrantly allegorical figures as Mr. Worldly Wiseman and places such as Vanity Fair and the Slough of Despair.
, Bruce the shark is a flat character--he's not around very long and we don't really understand why he does what he does. His motivations are very simple; when he gets hungry he tries to eat.
Quatrain - A stanza containing four lines. No rhyme scheme need exist in a quatrain, but the following rhyme schemes are common:
(the ballad stanza),
. The quatrain is the most common stanzaic form in English-language poetry.
Example: Many of William Blake's Songs of Innocence and of Experience (1789-94) are composed in quatrains; "Infant Sorrow," for instance, has an
rhyme scheme and begins:
My mother groan'd! my father wept.
Into the dangerous world I leapt.
Helpless, naked, piping loud;
Like a fiend hid in a cloud.
In this example, Hamlet uses a lawyer's jargon as he speaks to Horatio about Yorik's skull:
Why may not that be the skull of a lawyer? Where be his quiddities now, his quillities, his cases, his tenures, and his tricks? Why does he suffer this rude knave now to knock him about the sconce with a dirty shovel and will not tell him of his action of battery?
quiddities and quillities = "razzle dazzle" legal jargon.
Topic - The subject that a work of literature deals with. There may be several topics in a story.
is differentiated from
is the topic being represented PLUS the insight we get about that topic through the telling of the story.
For example, in the novel
, one topic that is explored is "the pursuit of knowledge." Through the telling of the story we learn that sometimes knowledge is dangerous, and that is one of the themes of the novel.
2. Compound Sentence
3. Dramatic Irony
- A metrical foot in poetry that consists of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. Words and phrases that are naturally anapestic include
in the buff
are you mad
Edgar Allan Poe's poem "Annabel Lee" (1849) contains many anapestic lines, such as:
- A sentence containing two independent clauses joined by a comma and a conjunction or by a semicolon.
For Example: "I shall satiate my ardent curiosity with the sight of a part of the world never before visited, and may tread a land never before imprinted by the foot of man" (Mary Shelley, Frankenstein).
Note: In this example, the "I" in "I may tread a land..." is implicit.
- Dramatic irony falls under the category of
, and can be defined as a situation in which the reader or audience is aware of something that the characters are not aware of.
: We see an example of dramatic irony in Act III Scene iii of
when Claudius is praying. As Claudius begins to pray, the audience is aware that Hamlet is nearby and intends to kill Claudius. Claudius, however, is unaware that anyone is watching.
Foot - A rhythmic unit containing one or more syllables in a line of verse. Feet are classified according to a combination of two elements: (1) the number of syllables; and (2) the relative stress or duration of the syllables.
Five types of feet are particularly common in English-language verse: the
Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem "Metrical Feet--Lesson for a Boy" (1834) exemplifies seven forms of metrical feet. Here is an excerpt from that poem:
Legend - Originally, a written account of the life of a saint; now, a story, often handed down through oral tradition, typically detailing the adventures of a human cultural hero but sometimes addressing the allegedly remarkable attributes of a place. Although a legend may exaggerate--perhaps even wildly--the exploits of its hero, it is likely to be grounded in historical fact. Legends often grow up around figures such as national founders, outlaws, and warriors.
Countless legends surround quasi-historical figures such as King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and Robin Hood, as well as clearly historical figures such as
Rob Roy, George Washington, and Annie Oakley.
Place-related legends include those surrounding the lost continent and city of Atlantis, the golden city of El Dorado, and the Bermuda Triangle.
6. Non sequitur
Non sequitur - a conclusion or statement that does not logically follow from the previous argument or statement--the effect is often comical.
Example: “On being told he was a grandfather, my father’s answer was ‘Federico Fellini just died.’ This became an instant family joke, along with his other memorable non sequiturs,” (Philip Lopate, “The Story of my Father,” Getting Personal, 2003).
- A phrase, line, or lines that recur(s) throughout a poem or song. The refrain may vary slightly, but is generally exactly the same. It usually occurs at the end of a stanza or section. When a refrain is intended to be repeated or sung by a group of people, it is called a chorus.
Every stanza but the last in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's "Mariana" (1830) concludes with the following two line refrain:
She said, "I am aweary, aweary,
I would that I were dead."
Grades for Socratic Seminar
Questions written before class (4 pts)
Spoke two times (4 pts)
Wrote thoughtful Reflection (2 pts)
Total Score (10 pts possible)
- A character made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place.
Tom Robinson in
To Kill A Mockingbird
is blamed for raping Mayella Ewell. Mayella and everyone else in her family are known to be less than trustworthy, and there was significant evidence that Tom did not rape her, but because Tom is black, he is convicted.
In “The Crucible” Elizabeth Proctor is accused of witchcraft during the era of the Salem Witch Trials.
Stanza - A grouped set of lines in a poem, usually physically separated from other such clusters by a blank line. Stanzas often have a recurrent form: a constant number of lines; a constant number f feet per line; and a set meter and rhyme scheme.
Some critics use the term
; others draw a distinction between the two, using
for the regular, rhymed divisions of a poem and a
for irregular, unrhymed divisions.
- A metrical foot in poetry that consists of
syllable followed by
syllable. Words such as bummer and party are trochaic.
The speaker in Robert Browning's "Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister (1842) uses trochaic tetrameter when he says, "
An allegory is a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
"Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory of the spiritual journey"
Synonyms: parable, analogy, metaphor, symbol, emblem
"Saramago's latest novel is an allegory of social disintegration"
Need another example? Dug from up is relatively flat; he only has a couple of character traits (friendly and loyal). Beyond that, we don't learn much about him. He's a dog. Flat characters support the major charers in a story.