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Exploring Continuity & Change Through Interdisciplinary Studies

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Karen Young

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of Exploring Continuity & Change Through Interdisciplinary Studies

Hmelo-Silver (2004) explains the steps in how to conduct PBL:
students read a scenario that comprises of any complex issues of the natural world
students analyze the issues
students come up with questions regarding what they want to know more of about the issue/how to solve the issue
formulate hypotheses regarding possible solutions
through self-directed learning (SDL), students do research on their own regarding what they want to know about the issue (do research on areas of knowledge deficiencies)
after SDL, students change their hypotheses in line with what they learned ( new knowledge)
after completing a problem, students engage in deep reflection of what they learned
the teacher acts as a guide in the learning process
Science
Social Studies
INQUIRY
CONTINUITY & CHANGE
Social Justice
Exploring Continuity & Change Through Interdisciplinary Studies
Table of Contents
3~4: Glossary
5: Introduction
6~9: General Theoretical Perspectives on Experience-Based Learning & Inquiry-Based Learning
10~14: Inquiry-Based Learning & Experience-Based Learning in Science
15~18: How Problem-Based Learning can be used in Science
19~21: Inquiry-Based Learning & Experience-Based Learning
22: Inquiry-Based Learning & Experiential PBL in Science
23: Continuity & Change: Science and Social Studies
24~25: What and How to Integrate
26~33: Exploring Continuity & Change
34: Continuity & Change: Social Justice
35~41: Gender as a Socially Constructed System
42~46: Queer Pedagogies
47~54: Gender Education in BC
55-59: Outline of Integration in Practice & Big Ideas
60-61: Practice - Understanding of Systems
62-70: Practice - Science and the Body Systems
71-78: Practice - Social Studies and Human Rights Systems
79-85: Practice - Social Justice and Societal Constucts
86: Conclusion
87~89: Example activity
90: Areas for Future Research
91~93: Annotated Bibliography
Introduction
In Case 7, we wonder how we might "create more active and experiential" activities in the classroom and how we might integrate these activities with place-based learning. Specifically, we wonder how we might connect these concepts with a unit on the Human Body. From this, we also wonder how we might explore issues of sexuality and LGBTTQ* rights in our society.
Theoretical Perspectives on Experiential & Inquiry- Based Learning

Continuity & Change: Science and Social Studies
One of the curricular competencies that grade 5 students are to develop include understanding the concept of
continuity and change.
The integration of science with social studies can help facilitate the learning of this concept.
Continuity & Change: Social Justice
Now that we have explored the theoretical backgrounds of subject integration between science, social studies and social justice, it is time to take a look at an outline of a possible classroom practice!
Conclusion
Glossary
Glossary
Areas for Future Research
Annotated Bibliography
Example Activity:
Queer Pedagogies
Gender & Education in BC
Gender as a Socially Constructed System
Two Spirit refers broadly to Indigenous people who were born with masculine and feminine spirits in one body
comes from the idea where the masculine and feminine together are reflected so completely in the body of one person it's as if they have two spirits
it is a standalone identity, not an Indigenous term for LGBTTQ*, although non-Indigenous people and some Indigenous people use it as such
Indigenous worldview conceptualizes all things as a being part of a dynamic process, with central concepts of movement and fluidity across all things including gender
in the past, many Indigenous cultures acknowledged and accepted variations in how individuals chose to express their gender identification
this contrasts with the Western mindset of adhering to a strict binary conceptualization of gender (male/female)
this can be used to engage in conversations about the connections between gender, sexuality, spirituality, and social roles:
Two Spirit individuals were traditionally revered as gifted and spiritual people who performed highly respected spiritual, medical, and economic roles as ceremonial leaders, conflict mediators, medical doctors, caretakers, and teachers
in contemporary times, the disposition of Indigenous communities have changed towards Two Spiritness due to the effects of colonization and Christian influences
now it is frowned upon and actually illegal in some Indigenous communities


Anderson, Boud, & Cohen explain key features of EBL:

takes on a
learner-centered approach
that is active & participative
underscores direct interactions with the environment
learners’ experiences are crucial components in all areas of both learning & teaching.
learners take part in
active learning by constructing meanings of their experiences
.
learners draw meanings from their experiences by analyzing reflecting, evaluating &reconstructing their perceived experiences in relation to their past experiences.
this way, meaning becomes strongly woven into learners’ existing knowledge, constituting some deeper understandings.
learning is a
holistic process
that involves the whole person-senses, feelings, & intellect.
involves
facilitators
(i.e leaders, coaches, & teachers) who negotiate with learners, assumes equal relationship with learners, and gives learners much control of their learnings.

Cuevas, Lee, Hart, & Deaktor (2004) explains the key features of IBL:

According to The National Science Education Standards:

IBL encourages students to learn more about science by engaging in scientific inquiry that involves posing questions about the natural world; students have to draw evidence to find answers to their posed questions.
encourages students to communicate and improve their problem solving skills through questioning, formulating hypotheses, making investigations, & drawing conclusions
inquiry-based learning strongly encourages students to question, analyze, & reflect about various forms of information: print, digital, & media that reflects our complex society
IBL has its roots in scientific inquiry processes [Silver, Duncan, Chinn (2006)]




General Theoretical Perspectives on Experiential-Based Learning & Inquiry-Based Learning
Inquiry-Based Learning & Experiential-Based Learning in SCIENCE
Inquiry Based Learning in Science
Cuevas, Lee, Hart, & Deaktor (2003) explains:

According to the The National Science Education Standards, scientific inquiry refers to :
different ways that scientists study about phenomena of the natural world
how scientists give evidence-based explanations to their posed questions
when students learn about science through the processes of inquiry
science inquiry involves students' posing questions, coming up with procedures, conducting investigations, analyzing their data, forming conclusions, and presenting their findings.
through this process, students form deeper knowledge & concepts of scientific ideas.

The NSES has also stated that the goal of science education should foster students' reasoning skills in scientific inquiry and teach students how to apply these skills (Haury, 1993).
Science Inquiry
knautscienceinquiry.blogspot.ca/p/ways-to-implement-inquiry-lessons.htm.
Experiential Approach in Problem-Based Learning in SCIENCE
Science Inquiry
Cuevas, Lee, Hart, & Deaktor (2005):

inquiry can be carried out via three ways:
student centered: students produce questions & conduct investigations
teacher guided: teacher chooses the question and both the teacher and the students work together to conduct an investigation
teacher centered: teacher chooses a question and conducts an investigation via modeling

according to the NSES, it is encouraged that students should move along the continuum from the teacher-centered inquiry approach to a student-centered inquiry approach in order to encourage students' engaging with science inquiry.
students taking the inquiry approach use these skills such as observing, hypothesizing, & comparing/contrasting when learning about the content of science; they also use these skills to reason and apply scientific understandings when solving real -world problems.

vitally, Keys & Brian argue that inquiry takes the constructivist approach: the importance of active learning in an individual.
basically, inquiry is constructed by the individual himself/herself based on his/her experiences with the natural world.
students actively construct their very own understandings of the inquiry process
students construct their very own knowledge about what they perceive in the physical world, constructing their understandings about the science subject matter knowledge
this learning takes place via interactions with their teacher & their peers.

Hmelo-Silver (2004) explains about Problem-based learning:

supports
meaningful, experiential learning
is an instructional approach to learning where students gain knowledge through facilitated problem solving strategy
takes place through a meaningful task (i.e cased-based instruction & project-based science)
practical experience is crucial for one's learning (Kilpatrick & Dewey)
helps students become active learners by having them solve real-world issues.
learners construct their very own knowledge of their experiences with the natural world
students engage in scientific inquiry to solve a problem
structured in ways that involve investigation, explanation, & conclusion
students work together in small groups collaboratively and learn to solve a problem
by sharing knowledge with each other from multiple domains, students are integrating their new knowledge into their existing knowledge, forming flexible knowledge that can be applied to solving all sorts of issues
teacher assumes the role as a facilitator who guides students' learning processes
also uses the PBL learning cycle
How PBL can be used in Science
Integration in Practice
Current Policies
Vancouver School Board (VSB, 2014)
BC Teacher's Federation (BCTF, 2011)
Let's Rewind...
The BCTF and the school board policies weren't always so inclusive. It took several court cases to reach the point we are at now.
Overarching Question:
How do we explore continuity and change through the use of systems?
establish, maintain, and provide a safe (free from discrimination), inclusive, equitable, and welcoming learning and working environment for all members of the school community, regardless of real or perceived sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, Two-Spirit, queer, questioning)
promote proactive strategies to raise awareness, and improve understanding of the lives of LGBTTQ*
eliminate systemic inequities and barriers for LGBTTQ* members and support their self-identification and determination in ways that make them respected, valued, and represented
students have the right to dress in a manner consistent with their gender identity/gender expression
schools will reduce or eliminate the practice of segregating students by sex
First things first... before starting a lesson, we should have a goal, objective or a main question in what we hope our students will learn.
What
to Integrate:
When integrating curricular content, it is important to be mindful of what is being integrated to help effectively connect subjects.
There are 6 components that can be integrated:
Problem-Based Learning Cycle
1. Ways of learning
2. Ways of knowing
3. Process and critical thinking skills
4. Content knowledge
5. Attitudes and perceptions
6. Teaching strategies

Kirkwood-Tucker & Bleicher (2004)
PBL & PBS
encourage teachers to work with school boards to develop and implement policies that will facilitate the use of learning materials that convey inclusive and positive portrayals of same-sex families
encourage teachers to address same-sex family issues in their classrooms in the context of relevant curriculum
encourage teachers to work with school districts to develop and implement discrete policies on LGBTQ harassment and discrimination
teachers should work with school districts to develop or revise anti-discrimination and equity policies and education practices to ensure consistency with the BC Human Rights Act and School Act
project based science is an approach to learning stemming from PBL
in fact, there are many similarities with PBL & PBS


PBL

PBS

problem:
realistic issues driving question

role of problem:
learning info & reasoning focus on scientific inquiry

process:
form ideas around issues, predict, observe, & explain
identify facts, SDL,
revisit & reflect


role of teacher:
facilitate learning process guide the process of inquiry
through modeling

collaboration:
negotiate with peers on ideas negotiate ideas with
(each student shares local community members
new knowledge with group , members & peers
solving the issue)

tools:
use whiteboard use computer for planning,
collecting data, & analyzing

The Big Ideas
We Are Tackling
Social Studies:
Science:
Science
Students are expected to know the basic functions of the body systems.
digestive
excretory
respiratory
circulatory
Explore continuity and change through inquiring on the functions and interconnectedness of the organs within a body system, as well as how the body systems work together to function as a whole.
Source: https://intered.vsb.bc.ca/sites/default/themes/intered/logo.png
Source: http://bctf.ca/bctla/images/Blue%20BCTF%20logo.png
Social Studies
Students are expected to know human rights and responses to discrimination in Canadian society.
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom
The role of the Charter in establishing equality and fairness for all Canadian
Explore continuity and change through examining the modifications of societal systems and human rights within the school boards and Canada as a whole.
Social Justice
Students are expected to know about gender equity, as well as LGBTQ rights and same sex marriage.
Explore continuity and change through investigating real-life cases, and how these examples changed human rights within the school system.
Systems
Definition: "a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 2015).
Two Spirit
Source: http://csivc.csi.cuny.edu/history/files/lavender/graphics/wewha1.gif
Science & Body Systems
We'Wha, a Zuni Two Spirited person
Inquiry Learning & Experiential Learning (PBL)
Questions to stimulate the students' interest in body systems:
How do we function?
How do we eat?
How do we breathe?
historically used in a way meant to negatively classify people who identified as gay or lesbian
since the LGBTQ liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, this term has been reappropriated as a self-affirming, inclusive term to refer to people who identify as LGBTQ (Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
often confused with biological sex
refers to the social construction of
personality
characteristics that are referred to as masculine and feminine and not the
biological
characteristics that characterize male and female
people can feel masculine or feminine regardless of biological genitalia
a socially constructed system of classification that ascribes qualities of masculinity and femininity to people
gender characteristics can change over time and are different between cultures (Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
Activating
Prior Knowledge
used to describe a world view that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation
rooted in the the assumption that everyone is heterosexual and leads to a set of policies and structures that reinforces heterosexuality by failing to recognize other sexualities (Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
How
to Integrate:
encompasses assumptions of the superiority of heterosexuality to homosexuality and all other sexual orientations
these beliefs can lead to oppressive systems that limit or deny basic rights to those who are not perceived to be heterosexual (Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
Student
come from
diverse backgrounds
and they all offer a
variety of valuable knowledge and experiences
. Therefore, it is important to find out what they already know because teachers can...
foster building on their existing knowledge
help students make connections to new contents
make adaptations to lesson plans
Fogarty (1991), provides 5 models in which content can be integrated across subject areas. These models are:
Sequenced  Shared  Webbed  Threaded  Integrated
Some Important Terms to Consider...
Inquiry & Experiential Problem- based Learning (PBS) Approach and Case 7
(Fisher, Frey & Lapp, 2012)
Gender
Queer
Heteronormative
Heterosexism
http://teachingwithtech.lss.wisc.edu/m4w1.htm
From Sheppard & Mayo (2013):
Graphic Organizers
http://matosas.typepad.com/escuelas_que_piensan_naci/2011/09/
Graphic organizers are effective in helping students generate what they already know.
a) Structured:
Although we acknowledge that all of these models could be used to explore continuity and change through the use of systems, we recommend the
webbed
model for this purpose. Such that:
the theme of "systems" can be used to connect science and social studies. Specifically, the systems of the human body and systems regarding human rights.
b) Open-Ended - Graffiti Walls:
http://alptool.blogspot.ca/
http://esl.about.com/od/writinglessonpla2/ig/Graphic-Organizers/
Example of Project-Based Science in a Classroom
Benefits of Graffiti Walls
Exploring Continuity & Change
Theoretical Framework
Quick and effective: can be implemented in 5- 10 minutes
Inclusive & multimodal: shy students can engage in conversation and ELLs can contribute by drawing
Provide understanding of students' knowledge and ideas for adaptation
Provide a space for students to visually see and reflect their thoughts, as well as on others' thoughts
Procedure
Through investigating the history of science and the systems involved, students can foster an understanding for: the bidirectional influence between science and social studies, developing cultural and scientific literacy, and of course, continuity and change.
1. Cover a part of a wall or use large chart paper. Place it somewhere that is accessible to all students.
2. Allow several students to write at once. Also, students should remain silent during the activity.
3. Invite students to write responses and/or draw lines to make connections to ideas and questions on the board.
Krajcik et. al (1998) explains about a project-based science approach that required students to go through the inquiry process as well as take on more of a direct hands-on experiential approach to learning:

students had to inquire about the question "Where does all of our garbage go?"
students formulated their very own predictions regarding how a variable of their choice i(i.e air, moisture, or light ) impacted decomposition.
i.e " Acid rain environment (apple juice) will decompose faster because acid raid will dissolve some things."
students designed the experiment-they created an environment with decomposition.
students observed for 3 weeks & recorded what they saw.
students described their findings during classroom conversations, in research journals, & in decomposition booklets.
the teacher guided the students, offering suggestions & providing more broad information about decomposition.
students presented their research questions & experimental process and were given any advice from both their peers & teacher
students conducted their investigations
in groups, students presented their research questions & experimental processes

Generate Questions of Interest
Split class into 2 groups:
1. Science group:
think about what happens during puberty
fill out Venn diagram to show:
what your body was like before puberty
what has stayed the same
what is new

2. Social studies group:
think about how LGBTTQ* rights
have changed
organize pictures in chronological order
discuss what has changed and how things have stayed the same

(Facing History and Ourselves Organization, 2015)
HOW can teachers help students generate questions from what they already know and their interests?
Questions help students focus on important ideas, stimulate discussion, and deepen thinking, where they take ownership of their learning.
The Question Formulation Technique (QFT) is a "protocol through which students engage in convergent, divergent, and metacognitive thinking processes" (Pease & Carpenter, 2011).
Question Formulation Technique (QFT)
Debrief
Colonial era
- Homosexuality was punishable by death
1965
- A gay mechanic, George Everett Klippert, was arrested for "gross indecency". This led to the decriminalization of homosexual relations in 1969.
1971
- First gay publication established, "The Body Politic", by Pink Triangle Press
1977
- Quebec amends its Human Rights Code to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation
1978
- First gay pride parade in Vancouver
1995
- Gay couples allowed to adopt
2005
- Same sex marriage is legalized in Canada
2014
- Kathleen Wynne, first openly gay head of government in Canada (Ontario premier)

Ask Science Group to share Venn Diagram.

Highlight how our human body experiences physical and mental changes, as well as some consistency before and after puberty.

Discuss how some of these changes may be accompanied by feelings of discrepancy in regards to gender identity. An individual's biological sex should not have to "match" a gender "norm". However, this is how we perceive things to be now. It was not always like this.

Ask Social Studies Group to share timeline.

Discuss how human rights, in regards to gender identity, norms and attraction have changed in Canada.
From this, we can see how complex systems can be, such that some can be changed, while others have stayed the same.

http://evavarga.net/2014/05/15/project-based-learning/
Silver, Duncan, & Chinn (2005) explain:

serves as a powerful tool to enhance learning
address real, relevant issues or questions
underscores the importance of collaborative approach to learning
encourage to think critically, explain by drawing info from evidence, communicate one's thoughts/ideas
teacher acts as a facilitator, who provides knowledge through guidance, in the learning processes
emphasizes the importance of learners actively constructing knowledge of their experiences in relation to their past experiences

Similarities of Both IL & PBL
Steps to facilitate the asking of many questions:
1. A Question Focus (QFocus):
A stimulus that will help students generate questions and new lines of thinking. Eg. a topic, image, phrase or situation, but
not
a question.
2. Rules for Producing Questions:
Rules to support safe and respectful environment, where students can ask as many questions as possible.
Eg. Do not stop to discuss, judge, or answer any questions.
3. Producing Questions:
Given time and space for students to use QFocus to formulate as many questions as possible about the topic, image, phrase etc.
4. Categorizing Questions:
Separate the different kinds of questions.
Eg. Closed vs. Open-Ended questions, or What, How, Why questions.
5. Prioritizing Questions:
Choose three most important questions you would like to address first or explore further.
6. Next Steps:
Put the questions into action! Eg. develop a research project
7. Reflection:
Reflect on what you have learned, how it can be used, and how it can be applied for further exploration.
Differences Between PBL & IL
Examples of Students' Work
Process of APK & QFT
Exploring Continuity and Change in Body Systems
PBL has its roots in medical education and focuses more on investigating about medical expertise that prize hypothetical-deductive thinking skills
PBL often makes use of text-based resources for self-initiated learning as well as for problem data
IL has its roots in scientific inquiry processes
IL underscores the importance of coming up with questions, collecting & analyzing data, and formulating arguments supported by evidence

Despite the differences between PBL & IL,
there are no definite distinguishing features of these two approaches
(under PBL, students explore & analyze data just like IL approach and under IL, students ask questions and draw on various resources to solve posed questions.
(Rau, 2015)
Timeline of LGBTTQ* History
After students have researched on their body system, they can explore how the body is always changing from biological and environmental impacts as they grow, however some parts stay the same.
Questions to deepen thinking:
1. Where is this system within our body? Is it connected to other systems?
2. What are the roles of each organ? How does each organ change as you grow? How does it change when you encounter varying environments?
3. How are the organs interrelated?
By Carol, Karen, Hai Ree & Vivian
Social Studies:
Social Identity & Human Rights
1) With the Teacher
how science is influenced by society and how society is affected by science
scientific knowledge is based on generational knowledge and inquiry process
scientific realizations/discoveries contribute to our history
science is a human activity that incorporates “creative, affective and ethical dimensions”
after understanding the connections between science and society, students can understand the importance of inquiry as well as the social responsibilities associated with it
“Social and ethical questions are intrinsic to science and technology”
While scientific discoveries have an enormous impact on the way people live
Important to ask the “human purposes” behind scientific explorations

Explore self-identity and roles within their local school, and the relationships between the roles.
Bidirectional Influence
Bybee et al (1991)
In learning about the history of science, students learn how science and social studies are interconnected.
Specifically:
Bybee et al (1991)
Questions for Class Discussion:
1. What are your roles as a student?
2. What are your responsibilities in the classroom/school?
3. How are your roles related?
4. What are the school rules? How do these rules protect you as a student in the school?
5. Were there changes on these rights? If so, what caused these changes?
learn the nature and history of science as an element of cultural literacy
become decision makers as they see how innovations and discoveries have impacted society in the past- ultimately, becoming educated citizens
explore how the role of science differs between and within cultures

Cultural and Scientific Literacy
Activity: Explore your local school's human rights system
First, the educator will take the time to support, guide, and assist by explicitly hint, question, model, instruct and describe the skill or understanding.
Vygotsky claims that a higher order of thinking is developed when students are problem solving under adult guidance (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009).
Teaching the history of science
can also allow students to:
Method: Use scaffolding strategy to facilitate exploration of human rights and how it changed overtime.
2) With a Partner
Continuity & Change
recognize scientific knowledge as tentative and subject to change as evidence accumulates
E.g. how perceptions of the body and the changes it undergoes has evolved over time
will allow students to see how innovations and discoveries surrounding scientific inquiry has changed societal beliefs (e.g. technological advancement, beliefs about the planets, beliefs surrounding the innateness of homosexuality) and how some have stayed the same (e.g. idea of gravity)
how different factors have affected innovation at the right time (e.g. Bill Gates with Microsoft when computers were beginning to advance)
Finally, the history of science supports concepts of continuity and change such that students can:
Bybee et al (1991)
Activity: Canadian Human Rights Act
Watch video of the summary of the definition of discrimination and some examples of discriminatory practices
Students will take notes in pairs
Class discussion will follow on how Canadian citizens are protected under the act
When working collaboratively with partner,
inter-subjectivity
is fostered. Inter-subjectiviy creates a "common ground for communication as each partner adjusts to the perspective of the other" (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009) and gain insight to reflect on own thoughts and feelings.
Explore the 11 grounds of discrimination that are protected under the Canadian Human Rights Act.
Benefits & Challenges of
Integrating Science & Social Studies
Can easily integrate some content areas, such as systems, concepts of cause and effect, continuity and change
Allowing students to learn and experience the interconnections of the world
A way to foster critical thinking and questioning in regards to why things are the way they are in the world
Can base assessment off interconnected “big ideas” from both subject areas-
E.g. 1: integrating the idea of “Natural resources continue to shape the economy and identity of different regions of Canada” (social studies) and “Humans use earth materials as natural resources” (science).
E,g, 2: (More complex subject-integration): on the topic of systems, a teacher could expand students’ understanding of systems by integrating the big idea, “Multicellular organisms have organ systems that enable them to survive and interact within their environment” in science, with the systems found within government, relating to the big idea, “Canadian institutions and government reflect the challenge of our regional diversity” in social studies.
Additional Activity
Lesson on Privacy
Objectives and Understandings:
Students will learn that people have a right to dignity
Discuss whether a limit to privacy is fair
http://thatsnotfair.ca/mayor-moe-and-the-lost-chain/
Benefits

More time consuming to plan
May have fewer resources to draw from if the topic has had little popularity with subject integration
If done ineffectively, students may not understand the connection between subject areas, thus weakening the effect or purpose of subject integration
So- teacher must holde in-depth knowledge of integrated subjects

Questions to Explore:
Why is privacy important? When do you care about privacy?
Where should you have a lot of privacy?
When is someone violating another's privacy?
Do discriminatory practice violate privacy? If so, how? When?
Challenges
Resolution:
Integrating these subject areas creates opportunities in the classroom that will benefit the students overall. Of these benefits, the most prominent being that students can think critically about why some systems have changed while some have stayed the same.
Students will look at a real-life case of discrimination.
Queer pedagogy is not about the content of the lessons or the teaching methods, but instead it is a stance from which teachers create learning environments in which they question assumptions. It:
3) Independent Inquiry
After building on background knowledge, students can explore the Timeline of Human Rights in Canada.
They each can choose a significant event and explore further through their own research.
When encouraging students to think about how science and society as a whole have influenced each other, we also inquire into why systems have changed.

This ultimately leads us to discussions revolving around social justice, specifically, human rights. To that end, we will be focusing on human rights in regards to LGBTTQ* (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, Two-spirited, questioning, and asterisk for other minority gender identities and sexual orientations).
challenges the status quo and challenges binary thinking - a movement across and beyond boundaries
push stereotypes: expand students' definitions of what LGBTTQ* is, as well as what heterosexual is
makes room for “reinvention” (i.e., trying on different identities and ideologies) and allows for creativity
does not try to indoctrinate students, but rather encourages students to consider different perspectives
naturalizes homosexuality as central to the curriculum and also as a tool through which the curriculum is delivered
does not “normalize” it or make it the "same" in the name of equity (which actually means fairness not sameness) (Jackson, 2010)
does not see knowledge as stable or teaching as a transmission of knowledge (adults should not be the ones that know everything and provides the answers - this links to inquiry teaching)
makes sure that “everyone has continuous opportunities to explore different views of the world, to become ethnographers of the imagination, to research how people make meanings, change their minds, use knowledge, pose problems, and create new opportunities for living life"
uses the knowledge and positionalities that students bring to the classroom and creates learning in the interactions among teacher, students, and texts
believes that identity is a process not a final destination


be aware of their own comfort levels with queer issues, as it sets the tone for the comfort level of the whole class
examine their own practices, including implicit and explicit messages found in their actions that may reinforce heteronormativity (Chamberlain, 2010)
view themselves as a co-learner along with students (Jackson, 2010)
engage with ignorance as a form of knowledge (by noticing areas where they or their students are ignorant, they can learn something about what they already know, regardless of the consciousness of that knowledge)
when learning or engaging controversial knowledge, teachers should be prepared to ask their students how that knowledge will challenge their preconceptions about the topic or themselves, and what knowledge they will need to reconsider or unlearn in order to learn it  (Shlasko, 2005)

Questions to Guide the Students:
What happened during this event?
What were the events that led up to this change in Human Rights?
How did this development affect Canadians?
How does this change affect you now and your way of living?
http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/socstud/foundation_gr9/blms/9-1-2a.pdf
Bloom's Taxonomy
According to Bloom (1956), there are different cognitive domains and levels of learning. In order for humans to reach full cognitive potential of a certain understanding, we must first concern ourselves with fundamental or background "knowledge" of the context.
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm
Therefore, this package examines the ways in which the concept of
continuity and change
can be explored, specifically through the use of
systems
- in science and in social studies. Through this, we explore issues of human rights and how these have changed over time.
Activating Prior Knowledge (APK):
APK is the background knowledge accumulated to assist in building new knowledge and skills. This is fundamental to generating effective questions for inquiry.
Cognitive Domain:
Classification or levels of thinking. According to Bloom’s taxonomy, every individual must start with background knowledge to develop new knowledge and order of thinking to proceed to the next level. For teachers, we must understand students’ prior knowledge to facilitate effective lessons.
Continuity and Change: r
equired as a curriculum competency under BC's New Draft Social Studies Curriculum. We chose to utilize this concept as the main feature throughout this package as we found that it was continuously brought up in our research findings.
Experience-Based Learning
(Experiential Learning): a learner-centered approach that encourages learners to actively construct their very own meaningful knowledge of their experiences with the world. We chose this approach to learning as a way to argue that EBL approach can be used to not only tack issues in the science subject matter, but also tackle other issues in the natural world.
Gender
: the social construction of personality characteristics that are referred to as masculine and feminine and not the biological characteristics that characterize male and female. This can change over time, and can be dependent on culture.
Heteronormative
: a worldview that promotes heterosexuality as the normal or preferred sexual orientation
Heterosexism
: assumptions of the superiority of heterosexuality to homosexuality and all other sexual orientations
Human Rights
: Law that protect individuals from harm and harassment. In this package, exploring the changes in Human Rights is important because it represents effects from significant events.
Inquiry-Based Learning:
approach that encourages learners to engage in scientific inquiry that requires students to ask questions and find evidence to resolving these issues. IBL encourages active learning of individuals. We chose this learning approach as a way to show that this approach can be taken up to delve into all sorts of issues: issues in science, issues in social studies, and issues in social justice as a way for learners to meaningfully engage with all these problems.


Let's start off by exploring what systems mean and the different kinds of systems in the society.
1) Define "systems" together - activate their prior knowledge by asking what systems means to them and how they came up with their answers (examples)
2) Dictionary definition
3) Gallery walk of images of different systems - Give questions for them to think about as they walk:
What are characteristics of each system?
Who or what are in these systems? What are their roles?
How are the roles or "things" related?
Do these systems ever change? If so, what may have caused these changes?
4) In groups or 4-5, compare and contrast two systems with Venn diagram graphic organizer
Images for the Activity
http://www.thecanadaguide.com/legal-system
http://www.dhakarachi.org/institutions/DA-MONTESSORI.aspx
http://educounselor.xyz/2015/12/27/education-system-of-canada/
https://futuremim.wordpress.com/2013/08/06/the-11-different-types-of-body-systems-and-their-functions/
Role of the Teacher
This lesson plan outline includes 4 interconnected units:
1) Basic understanding of systems
2) Science and body systems
3) Social studies and systems of human rights
4) Social justice system of societal construct.
http://whtime.cloudapp.net/tl/cstephc/history_of_human_rights_violations_in_canada/


How am I improving education to make it more inclusive of LGBTTQ* people's realities?

What am I doing to make my school safer for LGBTTQ* students and those perceived to be so?

How is my classroom supportive of LGBTTQ* students and children from same gender families?
(Chamberlain, 2010)
Experience-Based Learning (Experiential Learning):

Inquiry-Based Learning:
Teachers should ask themselves
APK
QFT
With all this information, we found that using
continuity and change
as the main concept was very beneficial in connecting ideas in science and social studies. Through this approach, we are able to converse about topics that allow students to see the interconnectedness of the world as well as the influence of societal change. Using inquiry and experiential methods, we can make these connections more meaningful to the students as well.
We conclude this package with an example activity for our cohort, as well as some questions that we were left with after engaging in this topic.
(Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
Let's now engage the students in body systems and how it may change due to different effects to the body. To facilitate inquiry we should first activate their prior knowledge, and then help them generate effective questions that they are passionate about.
(Sheppard & Mayo, 2013)
How can we effectively integrate ideas of continuity and change into other subject areas?

How can we further explore the idea of normality through teaching of the body?

What are some issues that may arise after teaching students all of this information? How could we collaborate with parents for this unit?
Scaffolding children's learning is the "process through which a more competent peer or adult helps a less competent child to become more competent and eventaully function independently" (Mac Naughton & Williams, 2009).
Teacher's Guidance Includes:
model how to highlight the main vocabulary
break down text into important phrases
make connections to own experiences
Explore continuity and change through examining how the past historical events impacts the present.
LGBTTQ*
: this acronym stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, Two-spirited, questioning, and the asterisk representing other minority gender identities and sexual orientations. We chose to utilize this acronym as we felt it was appropriate in accounting for the human rights that we discuss in this package.
Problem-Based Learning
: supports experiential learning and is an instructional approach where students gain knowledge through facilitated problem- solving strategy. It can be incorporated into problem-based science. We use this learning approach to explain that through problem-based science, which takes the problem-based learning approach, students can take on an experiential approach to learning, meaningfully engaging with issues in science.
Queer
: a reappropriated term that is used in a self-affirming, inclusive way to refer to people who identify as LGBTQ*
Question Formulation Technique:
This is a technique for educators to facilitate generating of valuable questions. It is a process of 7 steps and it is beneficial to initiating inquiry projects.
Scaffolding
is when a more competent adult or peer guides, models, or instructs a less competent individual to higher order of learning towards independence. Scaffolding is a great strategy for teachers to use to model effective learning skills, like examining formal documents (School code of conducts, court of appeal, and real-life court cases).
System
: parts organized into a whole, involving various complex relationships among the parts. In science, we mean systems relating to the human body (e.g. digestive system). In social studies, we discuss "normative" systems and systems within a society (e.g. beliefs, government).
Two Spirit
: Indigenous peoples who were born with masculine and feminine spirits in one body. This is not a sexual orientation but a gender identity that is being gradually lost over time.
Lastly, successful scaffolding includes moving beyond the student's original level of competence. Therefore, the teacher must gradually release guidance towards independence tochallenge the child to build new knowledge or skill (MacNaughton & Williams, 2009).
Chamberlain et al. vs Surrey
Jubran v. North Vancouver
Social Justice
&
Societal Systems: LGBTQ+
Exploring LGBTQ+ issues through examining real-life incidences that have caused changes in Canadian Human Rights.
"Jubran vs. North Vancouver"
Jubran was repeatedly harassed by his peers because of his perceived sexual orientation.
Harassments included anti-gay slurs and spitting.
He successfuly filed a complaint to the B.C Human Rights Tribunal.

Newspaper article of
Jubran vs. North Vancouver's Case
http://www.cdn-hr-reporter.ca/hr_topics/sexual-orientation/homophobic-harassment-student-breaches-code
Possible Experiential Activities
1) Compare and contrast the Human Rights in 1993 (year of the case) to the most recent.
Venn diagram of the Human Rights
How did this case change the Human Rights to protect against further discrimination
Impacts of government system on school systems
2) Examine the Court of Appeal through role play of the court case
Understand the responsibilties of each party
Relationship between the systems (school, court, peer interactions) involved
Perspective taking
3) Read and compare the different newspaper articles written by different reporters
Choice of words
Examine if background of reporters and/or company has bias views that may or may not have influence their word choices
Source: http://www.lexisnexis.com/legalnewsroom/resized-image.ashx/__size/500x400/__key/telligent-evolution-components-attachments/13-11-00-00-00-00-02-05/Court-Gavel-shutterstock.jpg
Excerpt of the Court of Appeal
http://www.courts.gov.bc.ca/jdb-txt/ca/05/02/2005bcca0201err2.htm
Apr 1997: Surrey School Board banned the use of three children’s books about same sex parents
Dec 1998: BC Supreme Court ruled that the anti-gay resolutions were based on religious precepts and therefore violated the provisions of the BC School Act
Sept 2000: BC Court of Appeal upheld the Surrey Board’s appeal, but only because it felt that the School Board resolution did not prevent the use of the books in the classroom if the teacher, in their professional judgment, felt that the books advanced the goals of the curriculum
Dec 2002: the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the School Board had been wrong to ban the books because of their same sex content
Inquiry-based learning and experiential problem-based learning allows us to look into real-world issues (in case 7, explore the issues of LGBTQ rights in our society and issues of sexuality) in a more meaningful way.
through IL and experiential PBl, we are able to question and draw evidence regarding these issues through explorations & investigations.
through IL and experiential PBL, we are also able to actively construct our very own understandings of our newly-perceived experience (new knowledge) in light of our prior experiences (prior knowledge).
we can do this by questioning, thinking critically, researching for evidence, looking for connections, and communicating with others.

through IL and experiential PBL, we are able to explore diverse ideas/issues such as concepts of continuity & change in science, social studies, and social justice.
via these two approaches, students will be able to see connections between these three subject areas and draw connections with all three subjects; students will also be able to see that there are bidirectional influences between these subjects as they take part in inquiry & experiential PBL.
The books and Chamberlain were seen to be promoting tolerance and the Court ruled that “tolerance is always age-appropriate.”
(BCTF, n.d.)
Takeaway
"Unheard Voices: Stories of LGBT History"
Students will listen to brief audio interviews with significant individuals that helped shape LGBT history in some way. Unheard voices can not only serve as an bullying prevention tool, but also
bring visibility to the invisbility of LGBT people
(Anti-Defamation League, 2009).
student Azmi Jubran was the victim of anti-gay bullying and his North Vancouver school failed to stop the homophobic harassment that he experienced for 5 years
the school district is responsible for discrimination in the learning environment, even when that discrimination is caused by student conduct
BC Supreme Court awarded him $4,500 from a human rights tribunal and ruled that the North Vancouver School Board must pay all of his legal costs aswell
his allegations were originally dismissed because he wasn’t gay, so he could not have been harassed on the basis of sexuality
this ruling sets a legal precedent in Canada
(BCTF, n.d.)
Takeaway
All Canadian school boards now have a legal responsibility to protect ANY student from homophobic harassment at school.
Corren Agreement
http://archive.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/unheard-voices/
Links to Additional Lesson Plans
The history and impact of Anti-LGBT slurs:
http://archive.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/unheard-voices/history.html
Understanding gender identity:
http://archive.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/unheard-voices/gender.html
(Meyer, 2006)
two gay men made a human right complaint regarding the lack of gay material in schools and how that was systemic discrimination against them
the BC government settled their complaint with an agreement that allowed them to act as consultants on a new Social Justice elective course that would include sexual orientation, race, ethnicity and gender issues
they would also be consulted on how to portray LGBTTQ* in the broader school curriculum as well
organizations of their choosing were also to be included in the consulting process
Takeaway
The Corren Agreement influenced the school curriculum to make it more inclusive and respectful of diversity. It also prohibited students from opting out of classes that discussed controversial issues with the exception of Health and Career Planning.
(BCTF, n.d.)
issues of gender and sexuality do not reside outside the shared and common experiences that are central to the events, ideas, and time frames that shape curriculum and standards (there are no boundaries)
gender roles are created by societies and cultures, which prescribe idealized "appropriate" behaviors for people of a specific gender
teachers and students need to consider issues of gender, sexuality, culture, and power to better understand and develop conceptions of citizenship
goal is not to change students’ personal beliefs about gender, but rather to engage them in the analysis of how gender is socially and culturally constructed
we should use an
issue-centered education approach
- consider the complex relationship between culture and identity
focus on problematic questions about the past, present or future (problematic = no conclusive right answers)
answers may be rooted in a person's cultural background, in formal knowledge accumulated from disciplines, and in lived experiences
provide framework for engaging students in inquiry in difficult issues regarding people, society and cultures
for example, try asking: "What is the role of diversity and how is it maintained within a culture? How does culture change over time to accommodate different ideas and beliefs?"

http://go.vsb.bc.ca/schools/maccorkindale/About/Pages/Code-of-Conduct.aspx
Andresen, L, Boud, D., & Cohen, R. Experience-based learning.Understanding Adult Education and Training, 225-239.

This article explains about the features of experiential learning such as the importance of experience & reflection of an individual as well as the facilitation of a guide. We use this article as a way to explain about what experiential learning is and how one could incorporate experiential learning into science through the learner-centered approach.

Anti-Defamation League. (2010). Unheard voices: Stories of LGBT history. ADL curriculum connections: Anti-bias lesson plans and resources for K-12 educators. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/education/curriculum_connections/unheard-voices/invisibility.html

On this website, it includes many informative curriculum resources that involves issues of oppression. For example, it includes constitutional issues, LGBT people and issues, indigenous people, racism, religious diversity, gender issues, and more. This website is valuable to educators because it provides multimodal lessons that stimulates critical thinking. This resource is relevant because it has unit plans on significant events in LGBT history and how it shaped the human rights.

BC Teacher’s Federation. (2011). Motions passed by BCTF to support LGBTQ students and staff. Retrieved from http://bctf.ca/SocialJustice.aspx?id=17918

This article states which motions were passed by the BC Teachers’ Federation in support of LGBTQ students and staff. This provided me with information on changed policies in favour of LGBTQ students and staff in order to promote a safe and positive space for them. This source is important to show that there is an active agenda in the BC Teachers’ Federation to better the situation for LGBTQ students and staff, and to see the language that they use. It is interesting to note that the BCTF has many “recommendations”, which implies that there is leeway for school boards and teachers around this topic.

BC Teacher’s Federation. (n.d.). A Chronology of Advances in LGBT Rights in Canada, and in BC. Retrieved from https://bctf.ca/SocialJustice.aspx?id=6100

This is a timeline of LGBT rights in Canada, with a focus on BC, including the court cases that sparked a provincial debate over what are the responsibilities of the schools in terms of inclusion of LGBT and protection from discrimination for all of their students regardless of their gender identity, expression, and sexual orientation. In case 7, we want to foster historical thinking of LGBT rights, and this timeline is a great tool because it localizes the issues and shows societal progress in thinking.

Blooms, (ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain New York: McKay
Read more: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/referenc.htm#ixzz3ycpyTiw5
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives

In this article, Bloom explains the different cognitive domains and how humans must develop through one domain to reach the next. The fundamental domain is the knowledge domain, which includes understanding facts from prior knowledge. This article is relevant because it emphasizes that activating prior knowledge is very important to supporting children in developing deeper thinking skills, like generating effective questions for inquiry.

Bybee, R. W., Powell, J. C., Ellis, J. D., Giese, J. R., Parisi, L. and Singleton, L. (1991), Integrating the history and nature of science and technology in science and social studies curriculum. Science Education, 75(1), 143–155. doi: 10.1002/sce.3730750113 —

This article promotes the integration of science and social studies education, specifically through the teaching of science history. The article explains how this is an important aspect of education in that it promotes culturally and scientifically literate students and ultimately, citizens. In regards to our case, this article is helpful as it lists some of the benefits of integrating science and social studies. It also provides a conceptual framework that teachers can follow to implement the idea.

Chamberlain, J. (2010). Queer education around the world. Our Schools, our Selves, 19(2), 149.

This article talks about the state of gender education worldwide. One problem in dealing with LGBT is the reluctance of the teachers to get with the program, and the author stresses that teachers need to take part if progress is to be made. This article is useful because it shows where Canada stands in relation to other parts of the world, and what we can learn from their policies. It also provides many additional resources for further examination.

Cuevas, P., Lee, O., Hart, Juliet, & Deaktor, R. (2005). Improving science inquiry with elementary students of diverse backgrounds. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(3), 337-357.

This article explains about the important features of inquiry and how the process of inquiry can enhance the learning processes of all kinds of students, but especially ELL students as well as students who are struggling academically. We use this article as a way to thoroughly explain what are the processes of inquiry, how to conduct inquiry, and specifically, what is scientific inquiry.

Fisher, J., Frey, H.N, and Lapp, M. (2012). Building and activating students’ background knowledge: It’s what they already know that counts. Middle School Journal. Pp. 22-31.

In this article, the authors emphasize the importance of background knowledge to support one’s intellectual growth. However, they also mention that not all background knowledge is relevant and children will need support in assessing what is important to the context. This article is beneficial to teachers because it provides suggestions in building background knowledge, as well as how to assess background knowledge.

Fogarty, R. (1991). Ten ways to integrate curriculum. Educational Leadership, 49, 61-65.

This resource outlines ten models for designing curriculum which help students create valuable meaning while learning. The models describe a continuum of integration: within single disciplines, across several disciplines, and within and across learners themselves. This is an interesting read and very relevant, although older in providing a very thorough description of the different ways of curriculum delivery. This article is a great starting point in relation to case 7 as a way for us to frame how we could effectively integrate science and social studies.

Hmelo-Silver, C.E. (2004). Problem-based learning: what and how do student learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-261.

This article explains that problem-based learning supports taking the experiential approach. It also explains about the features of PBL as well as the goals of PBL: aiding students to develop flexible knowledge, problem-solving ,SDL, & collaborative abilities. We use this article as a way to incorporate the experiential PBL approach to tackling not only the issues in science, but as well as tackling other complex, realistic issues..

Hmelo, Silver, C.E., Duncan, R.G., & Chinn, C.A. (2006). Scaffolding and Achievement in Problem-Based and Inquiry Learning: A Response to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006). Educational Psychologist, 42(2), 99-107.

This article compares and contrasts the two different approaches to learning: problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning. The authors argue that despite the differences in origin, these two approaches are very similar and that both PBL and IL are effective tools that enhance people’s learning. We use this article as a way to argue that IL and PBL should be incorporated into sciences to delve into more complex natural worldly issues that have to do with science, social justice, and social studies.


Jackson, J. (2010). “How do you spell homosexual?”: Naturally queer moments in K-12 classrooms. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3(1), 36-51.

This article explains queer theory and shows how queer pedagogies can utilize those theories and be applied in a classroom in a way that disrupts the norm. The author challenges teachers to not think heteronormatively and instead break the status quo. It is important to note that all of the teachers interviewed in this article are in fact queer teachers who may have a different dynamic in the class with their students, but all of the theories and pedagogies that are brought up do not require that kind of background and is instead a change in perspective. This article is very helpful in explaining what kind of mindsets teachers should have in integrating queerness into their classroom, and also shows how children find it a very natural thing if you don’t make a big fuss about it.

Kirkwood-Tucker, T. F., and Bleicher, R. E. (2004). Integrating science and social studies teaching methods with a global perspective for elementary preservice teachers. Curriculum & Teaching Dialogue, 6(2), 115-124.

This study was helpful in that it looked at how science and social studies could be integrated into lessons. The authors looked at the theories behind why integration is beneficial to learning, as well as how this method could tie in effectively with supporting a global perspective. In relation to this case, this study is relevant in that it describes the benefits of subject integration and suggests a method in how this could be accomplished with science and social studies.

Krajcik, J., Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Bass, K.M., Fredricks, J., & Soloway, E. (1998). Inquiry in Project-Based Science Classrooms: Initial Attempts by Middle School Students. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7 (3-4), 313-350.

This article thoroughly explains about how children engage in the processes of inquiry through Project-based science. We use this article to further demonstrate how experiential and inquiry approaches can take place in the subject of science.

Meyer. E.J. (2006). Lessons from Jubran: Reducing school board liability in cases of student harassment. McGill University. pp. 1-8.

In this article, it explains the case of Jubran against North Vancouver. Jubran’s case has significantly impacts human rights of schools, where schools can no longer claim that they are not responsible for student behaviour. Also, curriculum has changed to become more inclusive and proactive in creating a safe and respectful learning community. This article is valuable because this case has made serious impact on the operations of the school board, but more importantly, the societal constructs. It is a great resource as an educational tool to bring awareness to students of systemic oppression.

Pease, K. & Carpenter, B. (2011). Questions come first: A review of make just one change: teach students to ask their own questions. Harvard Education Press. Pp. 278-280.

This article explains in detail the Question Formulation Technique and how it is an effective guide in helping students generate relevant and worthwhile questions. The authors emphasize that developing students’ questioning skills will directly enhance their critical and higher order thinking skills. This article is beneficial to educators because it provides detail into each step of the technique.

Rau, K. (2015). Lesbian, gay, and transgender rights in Canada. In The Canadian Encyclopedia online. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-rights-in-canada/#h3_jump_3

This website provides an overview and timeline of Canada’s LGBT community since the late 1960s. It is helpful in understanding the roots from which the LGBT community came from and the trials and tribulations that the community has gone through as a whole. This timeline is very useful to look at both the positive and negative outcomes that the LGBT community has faced and allows for a greater understanding of that community through the lens of looking at what has changed and what hasn’t.

Sheppard, M., & J B Mayo Jr. (2013). The social construction of gender and sexuality: Learning from two spirit traditions. The Social Studies, 104(6), 259.

This article brings forth the different concepts and perceptions of sexuality and gender within a Native American framework that challenges the Western norms on the topic. It also shows ways for which gender and sexuality or the Two Spirit concept can be taught in the classroom in an effective and open minded matter. This source is very useful because not only does it introduce a concept that may be completely foreign to some, but it also provides age appropriate lessons that teachers can adapt in their own classrooms.

Shlasko, G. D. (2005). Queer (v.) pedagogy. Equity & Excellence in Education, 38(2), 123-134.

This article gives reasons as to why queer theory and pedagogy is useful in teaching and learning. This article addresses what is queer and queer theory and how queer pedagogy can help students in understanding. This article makes the argument that we need queer pedagogy to serve queer students to give them the best education possible. It shows how education on queer pedagogy can help educate about marginalized groups in education while also becoming a form of liberation for such groups. This article relates to the case because this teacher needs to discuss different sexual orientations to students and how to respectfully accept these varying identities.

Vancouver School Board. (2014). ACB: Sexual orientation and gender identities. Retrieved from https://www.vsb.bc.ca/district-policy/acb-sexual-orientation-and-gender-identities

This article provides a greater understanding about the situation revolving around LGBTTQ+ in the Vancouver school district. It shows what the Board of Education would like to implement in regards to the LGBTTQ+ community in order to define consistency when working with the community. The article also demonstrates how the Board of Education views the LGBTTQ+ community and how it is putting in place policies to better accommodate for the community to promote positive measures. In case 7 we talk about LGBT rights and this source shows which rights are being (and not being) addressed in our local education system. One thing this source does not include is past revisions so that we can examine how the school board’s policies have changed over time, which would be very valuable to analyze.

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