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Sexual Health

Year 9 PDHPE Theory Unit- Sexual Health
by

Lauren Anderson

on 30 October 2013

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Transcript of Sexual Health

Sexual health involves being informed about sexual choices and taking steps to ensure that you maintain a high standard of health.

Another aspect of sexual health is feeling at ease with you sexual orientation whether it be heterosexual, homosexual or somewhere in the middle.
Age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts. In mose states, including NSW this is 16 years of age for both heterosexual and homosexual intercourse. Controversially, homosexual encounters in QLD are not legally sanctioned until 17 years of age.

But being 14 or 15 does not mean sexual health is not relevant. It is wise to be informed about the issues ahead of time and to be prepared.
Age of Consent Laws
Qualities valued in a partner
We need to be aware of what we value in a partner in an intimate relationship. Often, these qualities include things like:

• Being a good listener
• Being forgiving
• Having a sense of humour etc

Some of these values can be influenced by social expectations and gender stereotyping.
Make a list of 8 REALISTIC qualities that you would want a boyfriend or girlfriend to have.
1. Maturity is required
2. No personal questions
3. Listen when others are speaking
4. Everyone will have different opinions, you need to respect this
5. It is OK to not feel comfortable, or to not want to speak
6. Be careful about making insensitive remarks
7. What is said in the room stays in the room
8. We will be as open and honest as possible, but we won't discuss personal issues.
9. Legally, it is my responsibility to report any personal stories/situations
10. This unit does not encourage you to participate in sexual activity, instead become informed to make sensible and legal decisions
Sexual Health Unit Rules
Find a partner of the same sex. You will receive a worksheet with the outline of the opposite sex. Using words and arrows (NO PICTURES) list and describe qualities of the “perfect” or “ulimate” person of the opposite sex.
A lot of these qualities are stereotypes, negative and very unattainable for the opposite sex to achieve. They also promote negative self esteem and a poor self worth. If you were a male, how would you feel if you had to live up to every single quality the girls in the class described?
It is important to forgot about these stereotypes and set realistic and positive qualities of the opposite sex.
Some of these qualities are more important to some people than others
• Does not pressure
• Caring
• Loyal
• Good communication
• Similar values
• Similar age (when teenagers)
• Not aggressive
• Has hobbies
• Physically active
• Does not participate in illegal activities
• Funny
• Accepts me for who I am
• Trustworthy
• Honest
• Responsible
• Accepts your opinion
• Accepts responsibility for own actions
• EQUAL POWER



REALISTIC QUALITIES OF A POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP
WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THESE STEREOTYPES CLASHED?
Power in Relationships and Sexual Harrassment Worksheet
TRUST-
your feelings
your thoughts
your reading of the situation

TALK-
about it to someone in your network

TAKE CONTROL-
by using your own plan to become comfortable and safe
TRUST YOUR INSTINCTS AND RESPOND!
HOW SHOULD I RESPOND?
Assertiveness Worksheet
Sally and Debbie are going to a party on Friday night. Debbie does not know the person hosting the party or many people that are going. Debbie tells Sally that she is concerned about this. Sally tells Debbie not to worry she won’t leave her alone at the party. Sally begs Debbie to go to the party with her as there is a boy going that Sally likes.

Debbie decides to go to the party. Sally and Debbie have a great time at the start of the night, however Debbie notices Sally accepting a lot of alcoholic drinks from the boy she likes. She notices that Sally is starting to stumble and she is becoming louder and laughing at everything the boy says.

Later in the night Debbie cannot see Sally anywhere, and is feeling a little uneasy being by herself at the party with people who are drinking. Debbie is approached by a boy she doesn’t know, who has been drinking a lot. After a while the boy starts to touch Debbie and won’t let her move away from him. He starts to pull her into another room and Debbie is starting to feel scared.
YOU DECIDE.....
What strategies could be used that might help to cut down the likelihood of Sally and Debbie being in an unsafe situation where they could be assaulted?
• Not going to the party
• Both girls agreeing to not drink
• Bringing an older friend with you to the party
• Staying together at the party
• Have a plan to get home
•Having a fully charged phone
•Not accepting drinks off other people
•Stop the unacceptable behaviour as soon as it starts.
Safety Strategies
When you make a decision to become sexually active, it is important to be prepared. This means understanding and talking to your partner about intercourse and contraception. Some people will decide that they are not ready for a sexual relationship and this should always be respected.
Contraception means methods to prevent pregnancy. A common form of contraception include condoms. All forms of contraception have some possible side effects and failure rate all of which needs to be carefully considered as well as protection from diseases and infections.
Male Condom
WHAT IS IT?
• A rubber sheath which is usually made from latex.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
• It is placed over the penis before sexual contact. Instructions within the packet need to be followed carefully.
ADVANTAGES
• Easy to obtain
• Cheap
• Only form of contraception that prevents sexually transmitted diseases,
DISADVANTAGES
• Can break
• Reduced spontaneity
• Allergies to latex
EFFECTIVENESS
• 96% effective if used properly
Female Condom
WHAT IS IT?
Thin plastic sheath placed inside the vagina overlapping the outer area to stop sperm from entering the vagina.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
It is placed inside the vagina using fingers, with the bottom ring near the cervix. The top ring sits on the outer side of the vagina so a penis is inserted into the plastic tube bag like structure.
ADVANTAGES
• Able to use straight away
• Protects against STI's and pregnancy
• Does not affect future fertility
DISADVANTAGES
• Can reduce spontaneity
• Can potentially slip/break during sex and can be noisy
• Accessed from family planning clinics
• Stigma
EFFECTIVENESS
• 95% effective is used properly
Diaphragm
WHAT IS IT?
A dome of rubber placed over the cervix to prevent sperm entering the uterus.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The diaphragm is placed inside to vagina, over the cervix and a spermicidal cream is used (which kills sperm). After sex, the diaphragm is left in the vagina for up to 6hours before it is removed for cleaning and drying.
ADVANTAGES
• Can be placed into the vagina well before intercourse (24hrs) and left in for up to 6 hours
• Does not reduce sensation
• Can be reused, one diaphragm lasts for 1-2 years (unless weight is gained)
DISADVANTAGES
• Does not prevent sexually transmitted diseases and infections
• Can be difficult to place properly
• Accessed from GPs and family planning association
EFFECTIVENESS
• 96.5% effective if used properly
IUD
WHAT IS IT?
A plastic T shaped arch with fine copper wire twisted around it’s stem which is inserted by a doctor.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The plastic arch presses against the uterine walls, effectively blocking the path of sperm heading towards eggs and changing the lining of the uterus wall so that eggs cannot implant.
ADVANTAGES
• Can not be felt
• Can be kept in for up to 12 years
• Inexpensive
• Convenient
DISADVANTAGES
• Does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases and infections
• Hard to insert in women who have not had children
• Can produce pelvic infections in some women
EFFECTIVENESS
• 97% when used effectively
Implanon
WHAT IS IT?
Implanon is small, thin, plastic rod, about the size of a matchstick (40 mm long and 2 mm wide), containing progesterone hormone. It is inserted underneath the woman's skin, usually on the inside of her upper arm, using local anaesthetic
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Implanon works by stopping ovulation, thinning the lining of the uterus and thickening the mucous in the cervix.
ADVANTAGES
• While the implant can be felt, it cannot be seen
• It is inserted very simply after a local anesthetic numbs the area
• The procedure takes just a few minutes and lasts three years
• Depending upon when in your cycle it is inserted, it can be effective immediately or within seven days of insertion
• After removal, a woman's ovulation, and fertility returns to normal within three weeks
• Removal is quick and easy
• It is available on prescription via the PBS.
DISADVANTAGES
• Does not protect from sexually transmitted diseases and infection
• Some people can suffer from side effects such as:
o Irregular vaginal bleeding
o Acne
o Headaches
o Breast pain
o Possible weight gain
• If it fails, an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy
EFFECTIVENESS
99% effective. About 0.1% of implants are inserted incorrectly, making them ineffective.
Abstinence
WHAT IS IT?
• Abstinence is not having sex. A person who decides to practice abstinence has chosen not to be sexually active.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
• If two people don't have sex, then sperm can't fertilize an egg and there's no possibility of pregnancy.
ADVANTAGES
• No chance of catching sexually transmitted infections and diseases
• Only form of contraception that is 100% effective
DISADVANTAGES
• None!
EFFECTIVENESS
• 100%
• Works everytime!!
"The Pill"
Two Types:
1. Combined Pill
2. Mini Pill
Combined Pill
Mini Pill
Emergency Contraception
WHAT IS IT?
The combined pill is a tablet that is made of synthetic versions of the natural hormones oestrogen and progesterone. The combined pill comes in different forms, including:

• Pills with fixed dose combinations
• Pills that vary in dose throughout the cycle
• Pills with different types of synthetic oestrogen and progesterone.

The combined pill is packaged in either 21-day or 28-day everyday packs. All packs contain at least 21 hormone pills. With the 21-day packs, pills are taken for 21 days with a seven-day break. The 28-day packs also contain up to seven inactive (sugar) pills, so a pill is taken every day.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The pill works by:
• Preventing an egg from being released each month (ovulation)
• Thickening the mucus made by the cervix (entrance to the womb), making it harder for sperm to get through
• Changing the lining of the uterus (womb) to prevent a fertilised egg from sticking.
ADVANTAGES
Advantages of taking the combined pill include the following:
• It usually causes lighter and more regular periods.
• Symptoms associated with periods such as pain, mood swings and headaches can improve.
• It reduces the risk of cancer of the ovaries and uterus.
• Periods can be safely skipped for convenience.
• Acne usually improves.
DISADVANTAGES
• You need to remember to take a pill every day.
• Cost may be an issue.
• You need to be able to visit your doctor regularly to renew your prescription.
• You may experience side effects such as nausea, breast tenderness, headaches and increased appetite.
• You may experience serious complications such as deep vein thrombosis (blood clots), heart attacks and strokes.
• This form of contraception is not suitable if you have risk factors for certain medical conditions, such as if you’re a smoker aged over 35 years.
• Diarrhoea, vomiting and some medications (including the natural remedy St John’s Wort) can interfere with the pill’s effectiveness.
• It doesn’t protect against sexually transmissible infections and diseases
EFFECTIVENESS
If used correctly, the combined pill is 99.7 per cent effective in preventing a pregnancy.
WHAT IS IT?
The mini pill or progestogen-only pill contains only one hormone – synthetic progesterone.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
It works by thickening the mucus made by the cervix (entrance to the uterus), making it harder for sperm to get through. A pill must be taken every day at the same time.
ADVANTAGES
Advantages of taking the mini pill include the following:
• It’s a good alternative if you can’t take oral contraception that contains oestrogen.
• It doesn’t affect breastfeeding.
DISADVANTAGES
Disadvantages of taking the mini pill include the following:
• The mini pill must be taken within three hours of the same time every day.
• It can cause unpredictable bleeding patterns.
• It doesn’t protect against STIs.
• Diarrhoea, vomiting and some medications (including the natural remedy St John’s Wort) can interfere with the pill’s effectiveness.
EFFECTIVENESS
If taken correctly, the mini pill is up to 99.7 per cent effective in preventing a pregnancy, but is less effective in younger women.
WHAT IS IT?
Emergency contraception, previously known as the ‘morning after pill’, is sometimes needed to prevent pregnancy after sex. This may be necessary if you have sex without any contraception, you miss taking the oral contraceptive pill or a condom breaks. It may also be necessary in the case of rape.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
It works by:
• Delaying or preventing ovulation
• Preventing a fertilised egg from sticking to the wall of the uterus (womb).
As the name implies, this form of contraception is meant to be used only in emergencies – it is not an ongoing or long-term method of contraception.
ADVANTAGES
• Does not require a prescription
DISADVANTAGES
• Does not prevent sexually transmitted diseases or infections
• Some women may have spotting or bleeding within the first week of taking emergency contraception
• Regular use may cause periods to be irregular
• If the combined pill is started after taking emergency contraception, then a period may be delayed.
• Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches are possible side effects
EFFECTIVENESS
Best taken in the 72 hours after sex (3 days) but
can be taken up to 120 hours after (5 days).
24 hours = 95%
25-48 hours = 85%
49-72 hours = 56%
Which contraceptive methods would:

1. Be the most effective in preventing pregnancy? Why?

2. Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections? Why?

3. Be easier for females to use? Why?


4. Be easier for males to use? Why?
1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections
2. Teenage Pregnancy
A Sexually Transmissible Infection is any disease or infection which can be passed on by sexual contact including vaginal, oral and anal sex as well as any other form of sexual contact.
Why is it important to learn about STIs?
• It helps one be able to take care of one's own body
• Untreated STIs can jeopardize a person's health and future
• ability to have children.
• It helps a person to discuss STIs with a boy or girlfriend.
• It helps us recognize myths like “It’s easy to tell if a person has a STI/HIV because he/she will look sick” that could prevent a person from using effective prevention methods or seeking needed treatments.
STI’s can be viral, bacterial/parasitic or blood borne. They can have serious short and long term effects on your health and can even kill you. Some cannot be cured.
If a virus causes a disease, it is possible for it to remain “asymptomatic” for periods of time (meaning there are no symptoms). It is possible to have the virus and not know it, and it is possible to pass it to another person without either person knowing it. Viral STIs can be treated with
medications, but not cured. A person with a viral STI will have that virus for life. STI that are viral include genital warts (HPV), HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and genital herpes.
Viral
If bacteria or a parasite causes a disease, it needs to be treated with antibiotic or antimicrobial medication. STIs that are bacterial/parasitic include
gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, pubic lice, scabies and vaginitis.

Bacterial/Parasitic
Are those viruses that are transmitted from the blood of one person to the blood of another person. Of particular concern are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). They can be spread by close sexual contact and sexual intercourse as well as other means such as blood transfusions, sharing needles, or
Blood Borne
Where to get help
• Doctor or public health clinics (such as the Family Planning and Health Clinic or STI Clinic)
• Teachers and counsellors
• Internet (.gov or reputable websites)
• Fact Sheets from a reliable source
In 2009-10, Chlamydia was the most
common STI (58,515 notifications, 84% of total STIs)
If you do suspect that you have an STI, it is important to be tested and to notify any sexual partners to prevent further spreading.

Also, if you are sexually active, it is extremely important to undergo regular sexual health testing.
Teenage Pregnancy Worksheet
http://youtu.be/iG44ueM9CBM
SEXTING-
One Click From Disaster
What are the factors to be considered when thinking about becoming sexually active?
Question Box
Using the website www.sti.health.gov.au

Answer the following questions (in your own words!)

1. Why get tested?
2. When should I get tested?
3. Where can I get tested?
4. How are STIs tested?
5. What is the cost involved?
6. Is testing confidential?
7. Who should you tell if you are tested positive?
8. What does the "ways to let them know" section of www.letthemknow.org.au allow someone to do?
9. Explain what testing procedures are used for the following STI's:
chlamydia - Herpes -HPV -HIV
GETTING CHECKED
Full transcript