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Diet Plan

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junaid khaliq

on 15 April 2015

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Transcript of Diet Plan

Protein
Not necessary to eat high amounts of protein as an athlete
Vitamins and minerals
Misconception that more vitamins and minerals are required
Balanced diet
Foods are classed as good or bad ..healthy and unhealthy
Carbohydrates
Athletes may top up with sugary sources (sweets, dried fruits, fruit juice and sports drinks to achieve optimal intake
Diet
Purpose of topic is to plan a diet appropriate for a selected individual using previous knowledge of sports nutrition
Plan a diet appropriate for a selected sports activity
Aerobic
Useful for athletes competing in events lasting longer then 90 minutes
Aerobic
Aerobic/endurance activities significantly challenge energy and fluid stores
Timing
Athletes undertake periodised programme of training
Anaerobic
In anaerobic activities (strength, power and sprint) .. nutritional strategies is to support development of lean body mass and meet energy needs
Planning diets
Need critically evaluate own eating habits and activity patterns before implementing diets.. nutritional programmes and strategies
Activities
Fats
Fat provides concentrated source of energy and predominant fuel for low intensity activity
Need to consider physiological demands of the activity, the phase of training and the individuals needs
Examples?
Information helps plan a balanced diet ..which is known as sports nutrition
Often viewed as a chore but consider the overall balance of food as healthy or unhealthy
Examples?
Balanced diet = one that provides the correct amounts of nutrients without excess or deficiency
Simple guide to healthy eating:
- Eat correct amount to maintain body weight
- Cut back on saturated fat intake
- Plenty of foods with high starch and fibre content
- Avoid eating sugary foods often
- Use salt sparingly.. and reduce convenience foods
- Adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals through
variety of foods
- Keep alcohol intake limited
- Enjoy food .. avoid obsession with diet
4-5g carbs per KG for less then 1hr exercise a day
5-6g carbs per KG for 1hr a day exercises
6-7g carbs per KG for 1-2hrs exercise per day
8-10g carbs per KG for 3 hrs or more exercise per day
Best approach = base all meals and snack around starchy carb foods and eat regularly
Glycogen (bodies store of carbs) - replenished most efficiently 30m - 2 hrs after exercise
Relevance?
40% total calorie intake(average UK diet)
Recommended intake = 30-35%
Regular exercisers need to reduce this further
Why?
Achieve recommended carb intakes
Water
Normal requirements - 30-35ml per KG of body weight per day
Thirst - poor indicator of dehydration .. drinking before sensation of thirst is recommended for adequate fluid status
Protein sources like meat, fish, eggs and dairy products are high in animal fats which is risky to long term health
Also can leave no appetite for carb food to provide sufficient energy stores
Normal varied diet - provide sufficient protein
Active individuals = more protein to promote tissue growth and repair
Olympic committee .. recommended 1.2 - 1.7g per KG of body weight per day
Exercise does not increase the need for micronutrients
Athletes eat greater meals and larger intake of nutrients .. this means they automatically increase vitamin and mineral intake
Fibre
Daily requirement = 18g per day
High carb requirements .. manage fibre intake because consuming fibre rich carb foods will make diet bulky an filling .. which means?
Limit overall food and energy intake
Different activities require different dietary plans or strategies to optimise performance
Longer ..more intense competition can deplete stores further
Key goal for aerobic activities = maximise glycogen stores
Increasing carb intake 2-3 days before competition ideal .. substances such as energy drinks, bars and gels
Athletes should start exercise fully hydrated.. need to consume fluids depending on duration of activity
Some activities can benefit from carb loading
Glycogen availability for storage is related to amount of carbs consumed and level & intensity of activity undertaken
5-10g carbs per KG of body weight will maintain liver and muscle glycogen ..however aim of carb loading is to increase muscles capacity to store glycogen above norm
What sports?
Mid season
Mid season demands are focused on maintaining energy and fluid requirements
Less overall nutrition may be required . but more attention placed on pre event prep and post event recovery strategies
Carb loading doesn't effect all athletes .. but high carb diets are essential for training and competing
Carbohydrate-rich meals and snacks also beneficial before training or competition
Carbohydrates not great for anaerobic activities but still useful
Combining protein and carbs post exercises increases protein synthesis that promotes muscle development
Consider effects of excessive protein intake
Flexibility
Weight control is a serious issue for sports .. such as??
Participants in aesthetic or appearance orientated sports develop eating disorders
Leanness and specific weight considered important for optimal performance .. placing greater stress on diet and appearance
The fewer calories consumed ..the fewer nutrients consumed
Diet of females participants in these sports (study) - shows low calcium and iron intake
Healthy eating and eat well principles - apply to these sports
Diet shouldn't be at expense of essential nutrients .. fluid intake and hydration also essential
Pre event
Periodisation - organised division of the training year .. and aims to prepare for:
- Achievement of optimum improvement in performance
- Definite peak in competitive season
- Main competitions within that peak
Training undertaken = form of stress on the body
If done correct .. athlete adapts to stress
Good nutritional practices ..important in allowing body to adapt and deliver performance improvements
Pre season
Pre season nutritional requirements need to take into account frequency, intensity, duration and specificity of training
Athletes energy, carb and fluid requirements increase as intensity and frequency of training increases
If energy and nutrient demands not met .. result in risk of injury and illness
Reducing post season weight gain is the main aim of pre season nutritional strategies
Appropriate for selected sports performer
Methods to collect information regarding diet include 24 hour diet recall, diet history, interview technique, daily food records, diaries, weighed food intake records and food frequency questionnaires
24 hour diet recall is quick and easy but relies on memory
Post-event
Good nutrition essential in aiding recovery between training sessions
Regular sports performer .. performance improvements are product of body's adaptations to training
Appropriate for selected activity
Each category requires nutritional strategies to support successful performance
Winning, avoiding injury and illness, and improving fitness are most important to athletes and nutrition plays the key
Purpose to prevent injury and risk of health
Examples of mid season diets?
Muscular strength and endurance
Many sports fall into this category depending on the physiological demands of the sport
Examples?
What sports are specific to weight requirements and require MS and endurance?
Nutritional demands dictated by nature individual sport and participant requirements
Key nutrients in all cases are carbohydrates and fluid
Post season
Presents window of opportunity for relaxation however need to monitor unnecessary weight gain
Energy and fluid requirements at lowest during this stage
Principles of preparing for competition ..similar to training diet
Pre competition meal = aims to top up muscle and liver glycogen stores
Rich in carbs but low in fat and fibre .. and contain moderate protein amount
Remember that larger meals take longer to digest and nervousness can delay digestion
How can we relate this to a boxer?
Competition not a time to experiment with food ..why?
Pre event meal - familiar foods and adequate fluids .. solid foods 2 hours before event ... liquid meals/carbohydrate drinks 30-60 minutes before event
Events lasting longer then 90 mins .. taper training week leading up to event .. include rest day and consume more carbs and fluid then normal
Examples?
Inter-event
During training and competition, fluid loss is major consideration
Isotonic sports drinks to be consumed during intense training and competition
Less beneficial if training or competition is longer then 60 minutes
Solid foods required for endurance or ultra endurance events
Energy bars or gels may be useful as more concentrated carbohydrate source
Biggest impact in supporting athletes to train consistently and effectively ..to achieve desired adaptations
What.. how much and how soon after intense training can influence recovery
Examples?
Sensible choices allow faster recovery for next session
Athletes have smaller frequent meals and snacks .. to help maximise glycogen synthesis
For refuel ... high carb diet is required
Consider relationship between eating habit and activity patterns
Appropriate for selected activity
Athletes should pay careful attention to foods that can enhance (not hinder) prep for participation and recovery from training/competition
Obtain all energy and nutrients by eating when they are hungry and choosing a balanced varied diet
Sports categories
- multi sprint or team sports - soccer
- endurance or ultra endurance sports marathon/triathlon
- strength sports - sprinting
- weight catergory sports - boxing
- aesthetic sports - diving
Team sports intensity can alter at each time
Interviewer questions the subject about usual eating and drinking habits
Useful for assessing quality of food intake and can reveal imbalances (high fat intake)
Rarely adequate to provide quantitative estimate of nutrient intake for comparison with DRV
The diet history/interview technique is quick and easy to use but relies heavily on memory
Questions the subject about eating and drinking habits but over longer time period
Recollections underestimate intake so risk of fabrication o impress the interviewer
Useful for assessing quality of dietary intake and can reveal imbalances in diet just like 24 hr recall method
Appropriate for selected sports performer
Daily food record or diet diary gives good overall guide to types and quantities of food and rink consumption
3 days should be recorded including one weekend day to account for different food patterns
7 day is recommended for more detail picture
Athletes should include rest days, training days and competition days
Weighed food intake is where individual foods are weighed before consumption
Time consuming and intrusive
Can lead to distortion of overall pattern of foods to make recording and weighing easier
Which method is suitable for yourself and for different athletes?
Diet
Activities
Timing
Appropriate for selected activity
Appropriate for selected for sports performer
Assessment of needs
Nutritional requirements for different sports and individuals will vary according to:
- the type of sport and training methods undertaken
- the intensity of training and competition
- the duration of training and competition
- the training status and fitness level of the individual
- the frequency of training and competition
Eatwell principle used to plan meals
Foundations on which to develop more specifically sports nutritional strategies
Weight gain
Weight can be gained by increasing amount of fat or lean body mass
Both will increase weight but show different readings in terms of body composition
Fat gains are easy to achieve
Assessment of needs
Following issues are important when developing eating and nutritional strategies
- types of food eaten to support training and competition
- timing of meals and snacks around training and competition
Weight loss
Most athletes concerned with attaining or maintaining optimal body weight
Weight category sports - boxing, martial arts, rowing, body building, horse racing
Some sports - low body weight is crucial .. may even be below natural body weight
Considered weight control sports - distance running, gymnastics, figure skating and diving
Inappropriate methods include fasting, skipping meals, laxative abuse, bingeing and purging .. and intentional dehydration by sweatsuits and saunas
Present challenges in maintaining nutritionally adequate diet whilst maintaining or reducing weight
Weight loss general means fat loss .. as losses in muscle ss may result in changes to power-weight ratio
Nutrition
Nutrition
Performance and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition
Carbohydrate requirements likely to contribute 55-65% of total energy intake
Protein = 12-15%
Remainder comes from fat
Food groups
Eatwell plate
Attempts to make following a balanced diet easier by identifying types and proportions of foods required to achieve balanced, healthy and varied diet .. based around 5 groups
Depicts a plate with divisions representing the 5 food groups
Smaller divisions = smaller proportions in diet
Why?
Applies to most people in the UK .. does not apply to children under the age of 5
You should aim to:
Sources and availability
Several factors influence food availability. physical and environmental factors
Availability
Appropriate for selected activity
Athletes should pay careful attention to foods that can enhance (not hinder) prep for participation and recovery from training/competition
Obtain all energy and nutrients by eating when they are hungry and choosing a balanced varied diet
Sports categories
- multi sprint or team sports - soccer
- endurance or ultra endurance sports marathon/triathlon
- strength sports - sprinting
- weight catergory sports - boxing
- aesthetic sports - diving
Planning diets
Overview of diet
What to have?
How much of each?
- ensuring balanced diet is achieved (for all nutrients)
- maintaining sufficient fluid intake
- encouraging adequate calcium and iron intake (particularly for females)
- promoting long term health and reducing coronary heart disease risk
- problems of traveling to training and competition venues
- minimising risk of injury and illness
Assessment of needs
Eat sufficient carbs and refuel as soon as possible after training when muscle capacity to refuel is at greatest
May not coincide with natural meal times
Fit eating times around training with smaller, more frequent meals and snacks needed
Rest days are vital and should be used to recover from stresses of training and competition
High fluid intake is encouraged .. post match alcohol .. can delay recovery and should be avoided for 48 hours if injury occurs
Gains in lean body mass can only be achieved as result of regressive strength training and adequate diet
Fat gain
Athlete may want to gain fat
Both will Particularly in contact sports where addiotnal body fat may increase protection
Fat gains are easy to achieve
Gains in lean body mass can only be achieved as result of regressive strength training and adequate diet
Fat loss
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Vitamin and mineral supplementation will not improve performance of athletes with adequate and varied diet
Micronutrient deficiency people who restrict energy intake .. use severe weight loss strategies .. or follow high carb diet with low micronutrient density
Athletes should aim to consume diets that meet RNI values for micronutrient intakes
Fibre

Athletes should aim to achieve fibre intakes in line with sedentary population intake target = 18 g per day
http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/eatwell-plate.aspx
Larger divisions = larger proportions in diet
- Base all meals around starchy foods
- Eat at least 5 servings of fruit and veg each day
- Include milk and dairy foods .. possibly 3 servings a day
- Eat smaller portions of meat and fish .. try alternatives such as pulses
- Limit intake of foods with high fat or sugar content
Changes are irregular and random .. and may draw on the body's glycogen stores
Performance may be impaired towards end of match if glycogen stores are low
Weight loss methods and restrictive dietary practices are often used by athletes in weight category/aesthetic sports
Cause potential dangers to health and performance
When diet provides more calories then your body needs for general maintenance and current level of physical activity .. the excess energy is stored as fat
Removal of excess fat is by reversal of processes that have stored this excess energy
If you burn more then you consume .. energy stored as fat will be broken down to provide energy
Cost, budgeting priorities, cooking skills, facilities and nutritional values all crucial factors in provision and availability of food
http://www.grassrootscoaching.com/members/page.phtml?id=118&mid=130&lng=EN
Availability
http://appliedresearch.cancer.gov/diet/foodsources/
http://www.food4life.org.uk/key-stage-three/eat-well-plate/
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