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Computer System

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Pia Guerrero

on 1 February 2014

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Transcript of Computer System

Computer System
A system of interconnected computers that share a central storage system and various peripheral devices such as printers, scanners, or routers. Each computer connected to the system can operate independently, but has the ability to communicate with other external devices and computers.
1. Duolingo
works to add interactivity and customized lesson planning to the language learning experience by rewarding users when they achieve goals, giving incentive to return for more lessons
gives users the opportunity to learn English, Spanish, French, German, Italian and Portuguese. You don't have to worry about being charged for the service any time soon, either.
6. Double Twist
Aside from being a great tool to sync your music between your Mac or PC and your Android device, doubleTwist is a powerful media player, enabling you to play multiple audio files, watch videos, stream radio and listen to podcasts. It certainly doesn't hurt that doubleTwist's album cover-centric design is beautiful to look at as well.
1. Mailbox
Initially supporting Gmail only, Mailbox is now also compatible with iCloud and Yahoo! Mail accounts — and it supports background syncing in iOS 7 so your emails are automatically fetched even when the app is closed. It sports a clean user interface that’s quick and easy to navigate, making inbox management a walk in the park.Mailbox’s main aim is to help you get to “inbox zero.” You can use simply gestures to archive or delete emails you no longer need, or set them aside for actioning at a later date. You can also organize then into lists, so that they’re easy to find in the future.
Mailbox supports iPhone and iPad, and it’s completely free. Futhermore, its creators have promised that support for other platforms — including OS X — is coming soon.
6. Moves
an activity tracker that automatically records all the walking, cycling, and running you do every day. But it doesn’t just tell you how far you traveled, how much time it took you, or how many steps you took — it also tells you where you went by recognizing the places you visit regularly.
Moves supports the new M7 co-processor in the iPhone 5s, and its iOS 7 “Battery Saving Mode” promises to be kind on your battery life.
the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system.
Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touched
Internal Components
External Components
a printed circuit board that houses most, if not all of the internal components. These include the Central Processor and the Memory cards as well as sound cards, graphics cards, video cards, any ports such as USB 2.0 or Firewire and the DVI port which handles the Monitor.
a computer chip that carries out instructions given by computer programs and handles all the day to day tasks that a PC has to do. They used to use up an entire circuit board, but nowadays, microprocessors handle everything from just one chip.

a type of temporary computer data storage. It deals with temporary data requests such as keeping windows open on a desktop or just viewing a file. RAM can often be overloaded which is what happens if a window freezes during shutdown or stops working.
a type of permanent computer data storage. Data is retrieved by using a series of rapidly spinning magnetic disks that store the data. The spindle physically writes the data to the magnetic disk and is a very delicate piece of hardware that must be handled carefully. Unlike RAM, hard drives retain data even if the machine is powered off or cut off unexpectedly because of a power cut. Data can be lost if the hard drive breaks or becomes corrupt.
a drive that reads compact discs only, but now expands to DVDs as well. These use laser beams to read the data on the disc. Drives like this one connect to the motherboard via SATA cables usually on internal drives, external drives connect via USB. The laser inside can move around to scan the CD from any angle. Constant reading by laser can cause scratches to the disc and the laser won’t read it properly as the scratches affect this process.
a switch operated unit that converts mains AC electricity into DC electricity that powers all the internal components. These units have many cooling systems so that they do not overheat.
These cables are connected to the Power Supply Unit and cables that look like this power the motherboard and is the largest connector found on a PC’s motherboard. Without these, the computer would not work, so are an essential internal component.
sucks cool air into the PC case and blows hot air out of the case and stops any key components overheating. This is an essential part of a computer’s cooling system. Fans can stop working if they become clogged by dust or any foreign bodies, so it require regular cleaning.
a type of expansion card that processes and produces outputs for displays. These are a crucial component that monitors rely on. They also handle output of video (such as S-Video) to projectors. They also have their own fans as this type of card gets hot quickly and needs instant cooling.
drives that have no actual mechanical parts and are a form of computer data storage. There construction resembles that of a giant memory card found in digital cameras. These drives boot up faster than traditional hard disks, but they have less storage than their magnetic disks counterparts. They are also less susceptible to shock than regular hard disks, reducing damage to the drive itself.
display for a PC. This is where anything you can see is displayed. Monitors vary in size and use LCD screens for better quality. They connect to your PC through a DVI or HDMI cable attached to the graphics card. Newer monitors use OLED rather than LCD because they produce more high quality visuals, but do cost more than LCD screens.
the main way of typing on a PC. When typed, each key produces a letter on the screen. Keyboards vary depending on what they are used for, some are basic and used for normal activity or special keyboards that control computer functions are also used in some industries. Wireless connection is used to connect a PC using USB cables or
the primary way of navigating a computer. The mouse used to have a ball that could move in any direction. Now, infra red lasers have replaced the ball and are more efficient than the ball mice. Currently, touch controlled mice with no physical buttons are being tested.
computer hardware that will print anything written or created on a PC onto paper, whether it be text or photos. Printers on the market today use either inkjet (liquid ink) or laser (toner) technology.
the housing for all the internal components of the PC. These are usually made from steel because they need to be durable.
a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (hardware).
refers to a collection of computer programs, data and applications that instruct a computer (a piece of hardware) on what to do and how to do it. Understanding software can help you get more out of your computer.
This includes application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to perform a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software.
system software
a type of computer program that is designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs. If we think of the computer system as a layered model, the system software is the interface between the hardware and user applications.
application software
all the computer software that causes a computer to perform useful tasks beyond the running of the computer itself. A specific instance of such software is called a software application, application program, application or app.
programming software
a program or application that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs, that can be combined together to accomplish a task, much as one might use multiple hand tools to fix a physical object.
three major classes
The operating system (OS) is the best-known example of system software. The OS manages all the other programs in a computer.
These are the top 10 most secure Operating Systems
1. OpenBSD
2. Linux
3. Mac OS X
4. Windows Server 2008
5. Windows Server 2000
6. Windows Vista
7. Windows Server 2003
8. Windows XP
9. HP-UX 11i
10. Solaris
MS Office 2003 and 2007
Mozilla Firefox ( Browser )
MS Word
Adobe Acrobat
Notepad, Wordpad and several others.

Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a hard drive, memory, or RAM). Once the software is loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. Computers operate by executing the computer program.
This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code.
Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation -- moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.
Software Copyrights and Licenses
a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software.
Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, except material in the public domain. A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.
In addition to granting rights and imposing restrictions on the use of software, software licenses typically contain provisions which allocate liability and responsibility between the parties entering into the license agreement. In enterprise and commercial software transactions these terms, such as limitations of liability, warranties and warranty disclaimers, and indemnity if the software infringes intellectual property rights of others.
Two Software Licenses Categories
1. Propriety Licenses
the software publisher grants the use of one or more copies of software under the end-user license agreement (EULA), but ownership of those copies remains with the software publisher (hence use of the term "proprietary"). This feature of proprietary software licenses means that certain rights regarding the software are reserved by the software publisher. Therefore, it is typical of EULAs to include terms which define the uses of the software, such as the number of installations allowed or the terms of distribution.
2. Free and Open-Source Software Licenses
Free and Open-Source licenses generally fall under Two Categories:
1. Permissive Licenses
Those with the aim to have minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed
2. CopyLeft Licenses
Those that aim to preserve the freedoms that are given to the users by ensuring that all subsequent users receives those rights
Software Copyright
Software License
the extension of copyright law to machine-readable software.
used by proprietary software companies to prevent the unauthorized copying of their software. Free and open source licenses also rely on copyright law to enforce their terms.
Software Installation
is the act of making the program ready for execution.
a computer program that installs files, such as applications, drivers, or other software, onto a computer. Some installers are specifically made to install the files they contain; other installers are general-purpose and work by reading the contents of the software package to be installed.
types of installation
1. Attended installation
On Windows systems, this is the most common form of installation. An installation process usually needs a user who attends it to make choices, such as accepting or declining an end-user license agreement (EULA), specifying preferences such as the installation location, supplying passwords or assisting in product activation. In graphical environments, installers that offer a wizard-based interface are common.
2. Silent Installation
Installation that does not display messages or windows during its progress.
are unattended but not all unattended installations are silent. The reason behind a silent installation may be convenience or subterfuge. Malware is almost always installed silently
3. Unattended installation
performed without user interaction during its progress or with no user present at all. One of the reasons to use this approach is to automate the installation of a large number of systems.
either does not require the user to supply anything or has received all necessary input prior to the start of installation. Such input may be in the form of command line switches or an answer file, a file that contains all the necessary parameters.
it is assumed that there is no user to help mitigate errors.
examples of operating systems that can be installed with an answer file:
Windows XP and Linux Distributions
4. Headless Installation
performed without using a computer monitor connected.
5. Scheduled or Automated Installation
runs on a preset time or when a predefined condition transpires, as opposed to an installation process that starts explicitly on a user's command.
6. Clean installation
one that is done in the absence of any interfering elements such as old versions of the computer program being installed or leftovers from a previous installation.
the clean installation of an operating system is an installation in which the target disk partition is erased before installation. Since the interfering elements are absent, a clean installation may succeed where an unclean installation may fail or may take significantly longer.
7. Network Installation

installation of a program from a shared network resource. This may simply be a copy of the original media but software publishers which offer site licenses for institutional customers may provide a version intended for installation over a network.
a small executable file which updates the installer and starts the real installation after the update. During the installation of computer programs it is sometimes necessary to update the installer or package manager itself. Sometimes the bootstrapper installs other prerequisites for the software during the bootstrapping process too.
designed to run on handheld computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), enterprise digital assistants (EDAs), smartphones and cellphones. Since the first handheld computers of the 1980s, the popularity of these platforms has risen considerably. Many cellphone models of the late 2000s include the ability to run user-installed software.
google Android
Apple iOS
top 2 mobile operating systems
A type of database system within an organization. It is designed to support decision making. Information and data is copied to the data warehouse so that procedures can be performed without interruption.
A data warehouse works by processing information stored by multiple transaction systems. It is constantly updated to prevent information delay and match systems with current version of data.
also known as "Data Warehouse" or "Enterprise Data Warehouse"
refers to the human role in an IT system. In many cases, peopleware forms a kind of "conceptual triangle" with hardware and software. The term refers to human talent as a kind of commodified piece of an IT process and a key part of providing various technical business models and other planning resources.
Computer Engineers, Website Designers, Technicians and other IT specialists, such as Database Administrators or Networking Specialists.
2. Pocket Casts
A one-stop shop for organizing your podcasts, Pocket Casts allows you to listen to, download and sync your podcasts all from one device. Audio playback is customizable, allowing you to adjust playback speed to whatever you're comfortable with. The "featured" and "popular" menus also help with podcast discovery.
3. Evernote
you can take notes or photos, keep reminders, record audio and tag all of it to make it easily searchable. It's so vast, getting started may seem too daunting to some.
4. Pixlr Express
A powerful, customizable photo editor that's more than just filters, Pixlr Express comes packed with the ability to color-correct, blur or layer images and stickers on top of one another. Just taking up 7.2 M of memory, Pixlr Express is more than worth the small amount of space it'll take up on your SD card.
5. Nova Launcher
for home screen design in 2013, Fully customizable, performance-oriented and with a prime version at just $4, Nova Launcher is a great download for any android user.
7. Reddit is fun
Easy to navigate, the app more closely resembles the web experience of Reddit than other popular apps -- which seem to be more focused on browsing rather than posting or commenting. Frequently updated with bug fixes and small updates, you can count on Reddit is fun to continue improving with time.
8. Feedly
The app's design is heavily image focused, giving a reading experience closer to how we use the web than most news aggregation tools. Offering easy sharing tools and integration with Evernote, Instapaper and Pocket, Feedly is a fluid, fast moving hulk of a news app.
9. Sleepbot
Whether you choose to use Sleepbot as a simple time log or a dedicated and powerful sleep tracker is up to you, but both options offer a rewarding experience for anyone looking to improve his or her sleeping habits. Sleepbot tracks your movement and noise levels, greeting you with a quiet alarm in the morning at your lightest level of sleep.
10. Aereo
Straight out of The Jetsons, the Aereo app -- currently in public beta -- allows you to access your cloud DVR on your Android device, meaning you can watch your favorite television shows on your morning commute. You can tune into your local channels and save up to 20 hours of television in the cloud.
2. Google Play Music
Google finally launched an official Play Music app for iOS back in November, giving those with an iPhone the ability to access all the music they’ve uploaded to the Play Music service. All of your music is streamed to your device over the web, so you don’t need to worry about storing it locally and taking up precious storage space.
Play Music also supports Google’s All Access subscription service, which gives you unlimited access to millions of songs. You can create custom radio stations from any artist, album, or track, and enjoy as many songs as you like without skip limited. It also provides recommendations based on your taste, and handcrafted playlists from Google’s “music experts.”
3. Vert 2
an extremely useful unit and currency converter with a wonderful design that looks right at home under iOS 7. It’s not just the same as every other unit converter on the App Store — it’s customizable and it supports all kinds of units.
4. 1Password4
allows you to create more secure passwords for everything that’s important to you, and then not have to worry about forgetting them.
1Password uses military-grade 256-bit AES encryption, so it’s incredible secure, and its built-in Auto-Lock feature ensures that even if your device is lost or stolen, you data cannot fall into the wrong hands. It has a built-in web browser that will automatically enter your login details or credit card information when you need it, and with iCloud and Dropbox sync, you data is with you no matter which iOS device you’re using.
5. Nike+ Move
exclusively for iPhone 5s, because it takes full advantage of the M7 co-processor to record all your movements. It doesn’t use GPS, so it’s kind on your battery, but it still provides accurate information for “when you move, how you move and where you move.”
7. VSCO Cam
third-party photography app for iPhone, Not only is it fast and easy to use, but it’s packed full of features that’ll transform even the dullest of photos into something beautiful.
Some of its features include the ability to separate focus and exposure, and lock white balance when snapping images, and editing tools that include preset filters and effects. You can also play with exposure, temperature, contrast, and color, and then export photos at full resolution without losing any of their original quality.
8. BBM
BBM boasts all of the basic features you’d expect from the service, including instant messaging with “delivered” and “read” status updates, file and photo sharing, emoticons, broadcast messages, and group chat.
9. Vine
the free video-sharing service, which is now owned by Twitter, is already incredibly popular with over 40 million users as of August this year.
10. Yahoo! Weather
It delivers everything you’d expect from a good weather app; it’s incredibly accurate, and its innovative design with alternating backgrounds sourced from Flickr is downright gorgeous.
When you first open the app, you get a brief view of the forecast at that time with high and low temperatures, and you can swipe up to reveal more. The app offers detailed information like 10-day and 24-hour temperature forecasts, sever weather alerts, interactive radars, and animated sunrise and sunset times and wind pressure modules. It also offers a humidity sensor and UV index, and displays the chance of precipitation each day.
You can add multiple cities, switch between fahrenheit and celsius, and customize the notifications and alerts to suit you. It’s completely free, and it’s a universal app compatible with both iPhone and iPad.
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