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Copy of relative clauses

by Simon Friend
by

belle balazuela

on 10 July 2014

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Transcript of Copy of relative clauses

Relative clauses
We went to Riverside Park, where we saw a lot of dogs and children.
I borrowed money from my uncle, who has his own clothing store.
I borrowed money from my uncle. He has his own clothing store.
I visited the South Street Seaport, where there were a lot of tourists.
That man, whose name I don't know, is the principal of my son's school.
My brother can operate a computer. He’s 12.
We saw her daughter. She looked like an angel.
She asked me about life insurance, which I know very little about.
She asked me about life insurance. I know very little about it.


“ I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once”

“ I poured him a glass of wine, ________he drank
at once”( No good)
(with commas)
Non-defining relative clauses (with commas)

Occasionally relative clauses gives you extra information, which is not necessary to understand the sentence. So there is a comma before and after the clause.

“ Tom’s mother, who is 78, goes swimming
every day”
(with commas)
Do picture’s
In what picture is christie the most happy…?
Look it’s the ‘…..’ the book I just read.
That’s …., the guy my wife kissed
That’s, …….. The city I love.

Where does ‘that’ fit into these sentences??
Run to the board and write the words that “that” comes between
I saw Julian Lennon's gig last night.
Who?
You know, The guy whose
I went to Sin City last night. Do you know it?
Yeah isn’t that the…
I just read the “Da Vinci code” you know that book…
I just saw “The Fast and the Furious”. You know that movie….
Jackie Chan is my favorite actor. Do you know him?
Yeah isn't that….
I’m reading about Nelson Mandella….
I saw brad pitt last night, you know, the guy….
Use Defining Relative Clauses to explain vocabulary in your presentations:
PRESENTATIONS!!
The relative pronoun can be left out in object clauses in both speaking and writing if they are defining.
“ That‘s the flat (which) I was looking for”
That’s the woman (who) my friend dumped
The work (that) you do is very interesting
The girl (who) I met yesterday is a famous actor
“She’s the woman (who) I met at Billy’s
That’s the dog (that) I almost ran over.
She’s….
That’s….
They’re….
So.......
Object or subject clause?
Subject clause:
(the relative pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence -)
That’s the
horse
which
ran
the
race
People
who
come from

New Zealand
are called Kiwis
A Bakery is a
shop
that
sells

bread
I like
friends
who never
let
me
down
DON’T WRITE YET!! Losers!

If the
relative pronoun
(who, where, that etc) is after the
subject,
it’s a subject clause
If its after a
object,
its an object clause.

I saw the
student
who
hit
me.
I saw the
student
(who) I
hit.
I visited the
city
that
started
Hiphop music
I visited the
city
(that) you
told
me about
I went shopping at the
place
that
ripped
me
off
last time
I went shopping at the
place
(that) we always
go to
.
Ok first thing,
What is a subject and what is an object???
Well,
The subject is the thing doing the verb
And
the object is the thing the verb is being done to
Let me show you…
Where’s the verb? Where’s the
subject (do) ?
Wheres the
object (done to).

Where is the VERB?
Wheres the
Relative pronoun?
Where’s the relative Clause? --- Lets do it together!
Now for the grammar….
I punched the guy who I buy my lunch from everyday..
I punched that guy who runs the subway downstairs
So… What word can be deleted? And from what sentence… (I’ll show you the last 2 slides again if you need me to…?
I danced with the girl who used to be in our class
I danced with the girl who I used to teach
So… What word can be deleted? And from what sentence… (I’ll show you the last 2 slides again if you need me to…?

So… What word can be deleted? And from what sentence… (I’ll show you the last 2 slides again if you need me to…?
Defining relative clauses (without commas)

Occasionally relative clauses are necessary to tell us which thing/person we are talking about, no commas are used.
Defining Relative Clauses
without commas
Defining means necessary
We do not use another pronoun like
he
or
it
with the relative pronoun.

NOT
the-man who
he
owns-that-enormous-dog

NOT
the-actual spacecraft that
it
landed on the moon
He / it
Use
when
to mean the time:

Do you know
when
you're leaving?
1968,
when
Martin Luther King was shot, was a tumultuous year for America.
(non defining)
Use
where
to mean
in which
or
at which
:

This is the park
where
I usually take my kids.

New York City,
where
I grew up, will always by my first love.
(non defining)
Who
refers to people.
Nick is the man
who
owns that enormous dog.
I don't like people
who
tell jokes all the time.
Who:
We went to Riverside Park. We saw a lot of dogs and children there.
I visited the South Street Seaport. There were a lot of tourists there.
That man is the principal of my son's school. I don’t know his name.
My brother, who's 12, can operate a computer.
We saw her daughter, who looked like an angel.
(with commas)
Fix them!
http://www.better-english.com/grammar/nondef.htm
Good examples
Easy to do with no grammar knowledge
Look it’s ….., the girl John loves
That guy Tom Cruise just got divorced, you know…
Subject Clauses. (
you can't delete who, that, etc
)
Finish the sentence on board – first team gets a point.
There was once a very handsome man who __________________________________ _____. One day he was walking his black dog that ________________
In a’s and b’s

Write 5 words: people, things, etc
Write 2 sentences for each word (not using the 1st word)
Then explain the words without using the words.

EG:
He is a man who is ‘sexy’ ‘handsome’ and ‘intelligent’. He is a teacher who is very talented, wears glasses and is loved by all his students.
(answer?) (use passive if you need to)
PRACTICE
Whose?
I

love

you
Simon

is

missing

his home
state
Anna

plays

basketball

Passive swaps:

You

are loved
by
Simon

So normally, it goes,
subject,

verb

object.
But in passive it is opposite – Object, verb, subject
Subject
,
verb,
Object
Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy who married Angeline Jolie
Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy (who) Angeline Jolie married

Basically… Because
in the 1st Sentence Brad is doing the verb
in the relative clause (marry) and
in the 2nd sentence it is being done to him
… - next slide – new example…

Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy
who
married Angeline Jolie

Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy
(who)
Angeline Jolie married
Lets examine….
There are two types of relative clauses:

Defining
tells us which thing we are talking about


Non Defining
ads extra info to an already complete sentence (good for writing)





----



It's connected to ownership!
and usually refers to people.

“ This is Jack. His sister is staying with us.”

“ This is Jack
whose
sister is staying with us.”

This is the guy
whose
car we borrowed

That’s Toby,
whose
sister is married to my brother

Hey, that’s Peter
whose
flat mate I’m going out with







Which can be a little formal.

There are several restaurants
which
do Sunday lunches.

Is Zedco the company
which
was taken over last year?
That
and
which
refer to things

That
is more usual than
which,
especially in conversation.
That;
The relative pronouns
EG:
who, which and that
go after the noun and at the beginning of the relative clause.

This is the girl
who
I love

Jun is the person
that
has the best hair cut

Gold coast is the place
which
has the worst coffee in Australia
Note how sentences are combined. Subject : “This is Sofia. She bought my car” “Sofia is the person who bought my car” Object : “That is the flat. I was looking for it” “That is the flat which I was looking for”
JG is a girl. I love her
“JG is......”
This is a shirt. I look sexy in it.
“This is ....”
Emma:
I saw Natalie the other day.
Melanie:
Natalie? The girl who plays the piano?
Emma:
No, that's Natasha. Natalie is the student
who dropped out of college, the one who
never did any studying. She's working in
Davidson's now, the shop that sells very
expensive clothes.

What does the clause
who
tell us?

What does the clause
that sells very expensive clothes
tell us?
Exercises (II)
1. Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space, or leave the
space blank wherever possible.

a) The person ..... fingerprints are on the gun was the person ......
killed Dr. Martin.
b) My bike, .....I have left at the gate, has disappeared.
c) The shoes .... I finally bought were the ones .... I tried on first.
d) The bag in .... the robbers put the money was found outside the
bank.
e) The medicine ..... the doctor gave me had no effect at all.
f) Peter, ..... couldn’t see the screen, decided to change his seat.
g) The present .... you gave me was the one .... I gave you last year!.
h) I really liked the tea ..... you made me this morning.
i) What was the name of your friend .... tent we borrowed?.
j) He is the person .... I wrote to.
Exercises (I)
1. Choose the most suitable word in each sentence.
a) My friend Jack, that/who/whose parents live in Glasgow,
invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland.
b) Here’s the computer program that/whom/whose I told
you about.
c) I don’t believe the story that/who/whom she told us.
d) Peter comes from Witney, that/who/which is near
Oxford.
e) This is the gun with that/whom/which the murder
was commited.
f) Have you received the parcel that/whom/which
we sent you?
g) Is this the person who/which/whose you asked me about?
h) That’s the girl that/who/whose brother sits next to me at
school.
i) The meal, that/which/whose wasn’t very tasty, was quite
expensive.
j) We didn’t enjoy the play that/who/whose we went to see.
The relative pronoun (who, which, etc) can be left out in object clauses in both speaking and writing if they are defining.
BUT!
NOT in an subject clause
CONFUSED......?
ME to!
Without commas -
1st slide


1. Subject and Object
Relative clauses can refer to a subject or object.

“That’s the
woman
who
bought
my
car”

“That’s the
flat
which
I
was
looking for

Vocabulary:
WHICH:
where
when
Whose
The relative pronouns

It tells us which shop Emma means
It tell us which girl Melanie is talking about
That
instead of
who
:
That can also refer to people in everyday speech.

Have you met the boy
that/who
Sue is going to marry?”
The car
that
won the race looked very futuristic, didn't it?
They've recaptured all the animals
that
escaped from the zoo.
The children saw the actual spacecraft
that
landed on the moon.
Be
careful!!
, watched the criminal leave his home.
who was feeling hung-over
The Police man,
I saw the student that hates me
That’s the jumper mum gave me for my birthday.

NOT
That's the jumper

_You sound dumb! -- We have to use this FORM to explain - "WHAT jumper"
She’s the woman who tried to run me over.
NOT
She's the woman -- It's confusing!

Why can we delete “WHO in sentence 2# (answer on next slide…)?
I played golf with Cherie, you know, the girl who lives near me.
I played golf with Cherie, you know, the girl who I live near.
Subject? Object?
So the word (student/city) that the relative clause describes ---
- is it the the thing/person that did the verb? Or is it the thing/person who the verb was done to?
Subject,

Object,

verb
Relative clause:
That’s the horse which ran the race
That’s the woman who my friend dumped
And… in an object clause you can delete “who”, “that” etc…
SO...
Object clauses: (The relative clause refers to the object of the sentence)

That’s the
woman
who my
friend

dumped
The
work
that
you

do
is very interesting
The
girl
who
I

met
yesterday is a famous actor
He’s got a
hobby
that
he
’s really
interested in
Rewrite the sentences on the board, show verb,
relative pronoun object and subject
One team do subjects clauses
Other team do object clauses
4 each!
The girl who I met yesterday is a famous actor
The work that you do is very interesting
That’s the woman who my friend dumped
People who come from New Zealand are called Kiwis
He’s got a hobby that he’s really interested in
A Bakers is a shop that sells bread
I like friends who never let me down (hard!)
That’s the horse which ran the race
a’s and b’s worksheet
Crocodile:
A crocodile is an animal (that is) used to make handbags and *THAT* has big teeth,
Chase:
Chase is a verb that means to follow/to try to catch
Encounter:
Encounter is a word that means to meet
Peru:
Peru is a country (that) Brazil beats in football regularly.
Margarine Is a food that tastes and looks like butter
Do the story gapfil:
Game
Beautiful
Ugliest?
What's the cutest?
The one that...
The one who...
What's the most beautiful object
The one that is..
Who's the most handsome guy in the room?
The one who is wearing...
The one who is sitting next to...
Which one would you adopt?
The one that....
The one on the left or the right?
To make sure we understand what we learned in the last section about Brad Pitt
Did the
GReeN
thing do the
BLuE
thing...??
OR:
Which word can we delete?
Which set of sentences can have one of their words deleted???
I was listening to Michelle Obama speak on the weekend.
Who?
You know the woman whose…
Australia Day, which is in January every year, is usually very hot.

Australia Day is usually very hot.
(Still makes sense)

Simon,_________, is from NZ.

Paulo,___________, has been in our class
for 3 months.

Australia, ____________, has great waves.
The relative pronoun cannot be left out in a non-defining clause.
Japan, is really exciting, is cheap to fly to from here.

Alex, is a graphic designer, left last weekend.
William, is a great kisser, is a bit of a playboy.

My dog, is a bit of a dumb ass, lives in Perth with my parents.
That cannot be used to introduce a non-defining clause.
“ The hotel, which was a hundred years old, was very
comfortable”
The hotel, that was a hundred years old, was very
comfortable” (no good)
My dog, which is a bit of a dumb ass, lives in Perth with my parents

My dog, that is a bit of a dumb ass, lives in Perth with my parents (no good)
Japan, which is really exciting, is cheap to fly to from here.

Japan, that is really exciting, is cheap to fly to from here. (No good)
NOW DO:
SLANG worksheet: one this week. one next week.
HOMEWORK:
Relative Clauses A
RELATIVE CLAUSES: EXERCISES
GRAMMAR QUIZ RELATIVE CLAUSES
Defining
non defining
Vs
INTRODUCTION
Great for writing: means you can add extra info to a sentence. Please use it for your writing assignments.
The relative pronouns
So whats a subject clause and an object clause?
Defining are used when someone is confused, normally in conversation. Normally it an is answer to:
"eh?"
"What?"
"Who?"
EG
Christa: Who?
Elizabeth:
The student who is from Korea
Christa: Where?
Elizabeth: It's near Japan.
Christa: I know where Korea is. I mean where IN Korea.
Elizabeth: Oh I don't know. She's Korean, that's all I know.
Christa: Who? I don't know who you mean?
Elizabeth:
The one who is really smart
Christa: Lucy?
Elizabeth:
No, the one who is new
Christa: you mean Lindsay?
Elizabeth: No she has a Korean name.
Christa: Bu won?
Elizabeth: YES!
Christa: That's Lindsay!
Elizabeth: ...
Non defining realative clauses are really useful in Writing, they help us ad extra info.
EG
Simon walked to the beach. He was hungover.
Simon, who was hungover, walked to the beach.
To check if it's correct, delete the part between the commas - and see if it still works
HINT:
I saw the student who hit me.
I saw the student who I hit.
I visited the city that started Hiphop music
I visited the city that you told me about
I went shopping at the place that ripped me off last time
I went shopping at the place that we always go to.
WHICH one can we delete? -- Click!

Paris is a city (which) I’ve always wanted to visit

INTRODUCTION
Deleting relative
pronouns
INTRODUCTION
2 RULES
RULE 1
RULE 2
PRACTICE
http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com.au/2010/01/american-beauty-restrictive-x.html
AMERICAN BEUTY
JUST WATCH THE MOVIE AND LOOK AT THE ANSWERS together. DON'T TRY TO DO IT - TO HARD...
Hotel for dogs
http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com.au/2010/01/hotel-for-dogs-unrestrictive-relative.html
With WS
Miss Congeniality
http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com.au/2008/10/miss-congeniality-unrescritive-relative.html
With WS
Olivia's secret:
The relative pronoun can be deleted if the word after is a name, or he, she, it, or some other
'Doer'
of action. etc
Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy who married Angeline Jolie
Yesterday, I saw Brad Pitt, you know the guy (who) Angeline Jolie married
I danced with the girl who used to be in our classI danced with the girl who I used to teach
I played golf with Cherie, you know, the girl who lives near me.
I played golf with Cherie, you know, the girl who I live near.
I punched the guy who I buy my lunch from everyday..I punched that guy who runs the subway downstairs
PRIVATE PRACTICE
http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses
http://www.bbc.co.uk/apps/ifl/worldservice/quiznet/quizengine?quiz=1318_relative_clause
Where can you delete the relative pronoun?
--2nd slide has answers..
A "perfect partner" is:
Full transcript