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Toward Civilization- Ancient China

SFP Global I
by

Mr. McLaughlin

on 3 October 2016

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Transcript of Toward Civilization- Ancient China

How did archeologists find our ancestors?
What are the key terms that associate with the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age?
Food For thought:
Chapter 1 & 2:
The Ancient Civilizations

Archaeology
: the study of people and past cultures
artifacts
: objects made by human beings
Technology
: skills and tools people use to meet their BASIC needs
Vocab before video:
What could be an artifact?
How did the first cities emerge?
What are the basic features of civilizations?
How do cultures spread and change?
Beginnings of Civilization
Things to think about:
Important Vocabulary:
Civilization
: complex, highly civilized, social order
Polytheistic
: belief in many gods
artisans
: skilled craft workers. specialized in certain jobs
pictograms
: simple drawings that looked like the objects they represented
scribes
: people trained in reading and writing
What were other specialized jobs?
and finally...
CULTURAL DIFFUSION!!!
the spread of ideas, customs, and other technologies from one group of people to another.

This will show up EVERYWHERE THIS YEAR!!
what are some examples of cultural diffusion?
River Valley Civilizations
Where were the River Valley Civilizations located?
Why these places?
Huang He (Yellow) River Valley
Indus River Valley
Think of at least 5 reasons why these areas were the start of civilizations:
Ancient Egypt: Nile River Valley
Religion:
Polytheistic:
Chief god= Amon-Re
Osiris (underworld and Nile) and Isis
Belief in Afterlife
Mummification= Preservation of the dead
Book of the Dead
Society:
Farmer
: most of society was farming class.
Fixing dams and irrigation systems
Served Pharaoh in off season

Traders and artisans: changed in new kingdom

Women: Higher status and greater independence then others
jobs outside of the home
Kingdoms
New Kingdom
:
Stretched to Euphrates River
Hatshepsut: woman ruler who had powers of pharaoh
Ramses II: pushed toward Syria
Old Kingdom:
2,700 BCE to 2,200 BCE
Pharaohs: A god to rule the people
vizier: chief minister to help supervise government
Pyramids

Middle Kingdom:

came about after costs of pyramids was too high and crop failures
turbulent period: Nile flooding problems
corruption and rebellion
1700 BCE: Hyksos occupied Delta
Tutankhamen
1922: Howard Charter discovered tomb
18 years old
tomb held many treasures
Not a very notable king, but one of the most famous tomb finds
Classwork:
Using the vocabulary words: create a story of what life would have been like going to high school in Ancient Egypt or Mesopotamia.
Rosetta Stone
meanings of ancient hieroglyphics forgotten after New Kingdom
the Stone is a message written three times in three languages
hieroplyphics, demotic, and greek
Jean Champollion deciphered message in early 1800's
be sure to include:
what time period you live in
what profession your family has
use facts from the textbook/ prior knowledge
be creative!!!
MESOPOTAMIA
Things to Think About:
How did the Geographic features influence the civilizations of the Fertile Crescent?
What were the main features of Sumerian civilization?
What advances in learning did Sumerians make?
3200 BCE= first cities built with earth and water
trade made Sumerian cities rich
made first wheeled vehicles
Floods and Irrigation
Much like the Nile, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flooded periodically.
floods were controlled by channels to water fields.
Government and Society
City-states
= political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands
ruler of each was responsible for maintenance of city-state
social hierarchy
= system of ranks
high class= ruling family, officials, and priests
middle class= merchants and artisans
base of society= peasant farmers and slaves
Women
started as high ranking member of society
had Mother-goddess; shifted to warrior god as
city-states grew.
City-states of Sumer
Religion
Polytheistic
lived like humans
responsible for truth and justice, as well as violence and suffering
ziggurat= temple where gods and goddesses were worshiped
top of temple: god or goddess of city
sacrificed animals, grain, and wine
believed in an afterlife; not a nice place to go
less frequent and more destructive
Take notes on the video. REMEMBER: Start a fresh page if you need room!
What was some key vocabulary of the video?



What are some benefits and drawbacks of keeping records in cuneiform?
Cuneiform= from the Latin word "wedge", a type of writing. developed from pictographs.
Advancements in Learning
Mathematics
Advancements in Geometry and Algebra
Based number system on 6
60 minutes in an hour
circle is 360 degrees around
studied skies: able to create calendars
First Empires of Mesopotamia
Sargon
: invaded and conquered Sumer in 2,300 BCE
Built first empire known
Sargon dies= empire dies
Hammurabi
= 1790 BCE was the King of Babylon; brought much of Mesopotamia under his control
Hammurabi's code=
codified
( arrange or set down in writing); 300 laws written down on pillar for all to see
civil law
: deals with private rights and matters.
business contracts, property, taxes, marriage, etc
criminal law
: offenses against others
robbery, assault, murder
"eye for an eye, life for a life"
Persians Establish Empire
Darius I ruled from 522BCE to 486 BCE
Unified Persian Empire
Set up bureaucracy; system of government
departments and subdivisions that follow rules
Babylon falls to Cyrus the Great (Persian) in 539 BCE
Built largest empire so far
Asia Minor to India
ECONOMY:
Darius I set up
money economy
= goods or services are paid for through exchange of a token or agreed value (coins or bills)
New Religion
...sounds familiar
Zoroaster: Persian thinker that rejected the old gods and worshiped Ahura Mazda.
in constant conflict with Ahriman, prince of evil and lies
Phoenicians
famous sailors and traders
able to farm, but because of location, trading and manufacturing was utilized
set up
colonies
throughout North Africa, Italy, and Spain
territory settled and ruled by people from another land
Alphabet
different then cuneiform; instead of symbols representing syllables, each symbol represents a single, basic sound
INDIA
Things to think about:
Review for Egypt and Mesopotamia
Vocabulary
6. civil law

7. barter economy

8. polytheistic

9. Money economy

10. Silt
1. Pharaoh

2. Hieroglyphics

3. Papyrus

4. Hierarchy

5. Cuneiform
Recalling key facts
1. What are the 5 reasons civilizations developed in places like the Nile river and Mesopotamia?

2. Both the egyptians and the Sumerians believed in an afterlife. What is different about them and why are they so different?

3. What is cultural diffusion, what are some examples, and how does it affect a civilization?
Map Assessment
1. Describe the location of lower Egypt.



2. Why did most people in ancient Egypt live near the Nile?
3. Based on the map, do you think Egyptian traders would more likely travel by the Red Sea or the Mediterranean Sea? Explain.

4. Which part of the Nile was more densely populated. Why?
1. Describe the geography of the Indian Subcontinent

2. Analyze the main characteristics of the Aryan civilization and the fall of the Indus civilization

3. Explain what ancient Indian epics reveal about Aryan life.
Subcontinent
=
large landmass that juts out from a continent
- includes three of the worlds most populated countries- India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh

-Hindu Kush and Himalayas to the north
-how could these affected Indus river valley civilizations?
- natural physical barriers!!!
divided into three major zones
1. fertile Gangetic Plain
2. dry Deccan
plateau

(raised area of level land)
- lacks water from frozen ice caps on
mountains. how could that be a
problem?
3.coastal plains on either side of the Deccan
Climate
-
Monsoons
= seasonal winds that regularly blow from a certain direction for part of the year
-October= hot winds from northeast= withers crops
-June= pick up moisture from southwest to water crops
-relied on these rains to water crops
Indus Civilization
- 2600 BCE
- flourished for 700 years
- writing found, but no records of:
-kings or queens
- tax records
- literature
- accounts of famous victories
- written accounts are found rarely
- At least 5 large cities existed during the time if this civilization.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro= possible twin capitols of this civilization
- many people were farmers
- may have been the first people to cultivate cotton and weave into cloth
Religious Beliefs
all are theories, not 100 fact
- honored a mother goddess and perhaps a lead male god
- animals were sacred
- veneration= special regard for a certain object or animal
- this might have been cattle; much like today
Indus Civilization Declines:
1900 BCE, life in the Indus valley declined
-Writing haulted
- Mohenjo-Daro completely abandoned
Not sure why
- theories are:
- conquered= not likely
- change in the local environment
- major flood (due to discoveries of mud found in the streets if Mohenjo-Daro)
-earthquake
Arayan Civilization Develops During the Vedic Age
Aryans Emerge in India
- Nomads that intermarried with local people that created a new group
-
acculturation
= the blending of two or more cultures
- built no cities and left little archeological evidence
-
Vedas
= a collection of chants, ritual instructions, and other religious teachings
-1500- 500 BCE known as Vedic Age
-Soon settled down to farm and breed cattle
Settling down...
- 800 BCE= soon learned to make tools out of iron
- moved toward the Ganges basin
- led by chiefs called
rajahs
- skilled warrior that is elected to position
Social Hierarchy
Set up a system of ranks within society
-Brahmins= or priests, at the top
- Kshatriyas= or warriors
- Vaisyas= herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants
- Sudras= little or no Aryan heritage (farmworkers, servants, and other laborers
- Dalits= outside the caste system. did work that others didnt
Religion
- Polytheistic= worshiped gods and goddesses that embodied natural forces
- Indra= god of war. main weapon was a
thunderbolt
- also honored animal deities
-Brahmins sacrificed food and drink to gods.
- as Aryan life changed, so did beliefs.
-
Brahman
= single spiritual power that existed beyond the many gods of the Vedas and the resided in all things
-
Mystics
= seek direct communion with divine forces
- practiced yoga, meditation, and other disiplines to help connect with the divine
Buddhism
Hinduism and Buddhism
Key teachings of Buddha
-
Siddhartha Guatama
= reformer who started the teachings of Buddhism
-born a prince around 563 BCE
-mom had dream of white elephant and her son would become wandering holy man
- father wanted to prevent that and kept him in palace
- married at 16 and enjoyed life
- left palace one day to discover human suffering
- "discover the realm of life where there is neither suffering nor death"
4 Noble Truths
Hinduism
Beliefs develop
-No single founder and on single sacred texts
- one of the worlds most complex religions
- Aryans added gods of Indus to their own
- later people brought other gods, beliefs, and practices
One Force...
Three main gods of Hinduism:
1. Brahma, the Creator
2. Vishnu, the Preserver
3. Shiva, the Destroyer
all three take many forms,
human or animal
The Vedas, from the Aryans, is where most of the teachings are held.
one section called Upanishads address mystical questions related to Hinduism
Key Hinduism terms:
Atman
= essential self

moksha
= ultimate goal of existence. union to the Brahman. free ones self from selfish desires.

reincarnation
: rebirth of the soul in another bodily form. allows people to keep working towards moksha.

Karma
= all actions in a persons life that affect his or her fate in the next life.

dharma
= the religious moral duties of an individual. vary according to class, occupation, gender, and age.

ahimsa
= nonviolence, a key principle of hinduism
Caste System
Castes
= social groups into which people are born and which rarely are changed
-closely linked to Hindu beliefs
-everything about the caste shaped how someone lived
-where
- what they ate
-how they dressed
- how they earned a living
some people were considered "untouchables"= Dalits
Although unequal, ensured social order
-members cooperated with one another
- also, castes depended on each other for survival
-adapted to changing conditions
-people migrated to Indian sub continent, created new castes and sub-castes
1. All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow

2. The cause of all suffering is nonvirtue (desire), or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatre and desire

3. The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue (Remove desire from life)

4. The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the
Eightfold Path
.
by following the Eightfold Path, one can reach
nirvana
,
or union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
- right views
-right aspirations (desire or ambition to achieve something)
- right speech
- right conduct
- right livelihood
- right effort
- right mindfulness
- right contemplation (to admire something and think about it)
Spreads beyond India
- After the death of Buddha, followers collected his teachings into the Tripitaka, or "Three Baskets of Wisdom"
- Eventually split into two major sects, or subgroups
-
Threavada
= closely followed Buddha's original teachings. only for most devoted monks or nuns. Spread to Sri Lanka and Southwest Asia
-
Mahayana
= easier for ordinary people to follow. pictured Buddha as a compasionate god (against teachings of Buddha) Spread to China, Tibet, Korea, and Japan.

-Declines in India,absorbed by Hinduism, with Buddha as another Hindu god.
Powerful Empires of India
The Maurya Empire Creates a Strong Government
Chandragupta Maurya
= young adventurer forged the first Indian empire
- First gained power in Ganges Valley and then moved towards Northern India
- had well organized bureaucracy
- building of roads and harbors= benefit trade
- ruled effectively, but harsh
- secret police reported on corruption, crime,
dissent
: ideas that opposed those of the government.
- Had specially trained women warriors to protect him
Asoka Rules by Moral example
Asoka= grandson of Chandragupta, became ruler in 268 BCE
- After Kalinga, Asoka turned to Buddhism (100,000 slaughtered)
and wanted to rule by example
- sent
missionaries
(people sent on a religious duty) to spread Buddhism across India.
division and disunity set in
185 BCE= unity shattered; princes battled over Gangetic Plain
- differences in distance and culture allowed for foreigners to come in and control land
Guptas bring about a Golden Age
Gupta empire came 500 years after Mauryas
- ruled from 320 AD- 540 AD nad enjoyed
golden age
(period of great cultural achievement)
- rule was very different from Mauryas
- let power stay with villages and city governments
Review
1. How did India's great rulers maintain peace and order?

2. Who forged the Maurya empire

3. How did Asoka's conversion to Buddhism Change the way he ruled?

4. How was Gupta Rule different from Maurya rule?
Family and Village Life Shape Indian Society
Joint Family
= parents, children, and offspring shared a common dwelling.
- family was patriarchal
- Sons always lived with family; daughters moved in with husbands
- Family obligations came before individual wants
- caste system comes into play
-
Dowery
= bride's family's payment to the groom for wedding. custom in Northern India
Role of women changed
- Started as higher then Aryan society
- as time went by, roles changed.
- High class= restricted to home; if they went out, had to be covered from head to toe
-low class: didnt matter, had to work in the fields
- Devoted to husband. way to gain higher caste was to join husband in his death (throw themselves on husbands funeral fire)
Rise of Civilization in China
Geography Influences Civilization
Barriers Set China Apart
- west and southwest= Deserts and mountains (Tian Shan and Himalayas)
- southeast= rainforests
- north= Gobi desert
-east= Pacific Ocean
Although there were many barriers, the Chinese were able to have contact with the outside world
Varied Regions
- As empires grew, China covered a lot of land and regions
gets name from
loess
or the fine windblown yellow soil
- "river of sorrows"
- Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Rivers
- Most settled there
- Was, and still is, a major source of farming and trade
- Xinjiang and Mongolia are outlying regions
- nomads typically came to raid and plunder china
- Some rulers conquered or made alliances with them
What geographic barriers set China apart from other civilizations?
In what ways did this geographic isolation affect how the Chinese viewed the world?
Because there was not much contact with outsiders, the Chinese believed that China was the center of the Earth and the sole source of civilization. This allowed a unique culture to develop
Quick review...
Han Dynasty
- Emperor Wudi makes government
monopoly
(complete control of a product or business by one person or group) over iron and salt
- expansionism
= expanding a county's territories by increasing the amount of land under Chinese rule
- added outposts in Manchuria, Korea, northern Vietnam, Tibet, and central Asia

Silk Road
- Trade route that connected China to the West for centuries
stretched 4000 miles; goods transported in stages

Civil Servants
- officials of the government
- was not based on family status, but earned
- had to take exams to be deemed worthy
- start at low level clerical job
- Study the Five Classics compiled by Confucius
Han dynasty eventually overthrown by
warlords
(local military rulers)
- peasant uprisings spread across China

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE HAN GOLDEN AGE
- Science and Medicine
- chemistry, zoology, botany, and other subjects were expanded upon
- developed better calenders
-argued that eclipses weren't from political action
- promoted the use of
acupuncture
= developed around 2500 BCE, doctor inserts needles
into body to relieve stress and illness
- Engineering and technology
- Cai Lun (ky loon) = discovered way to create paper out of wood pulp; still used today
- rudder on boat to steer
- wheelbarrows, fishing reels, suspension bridges
Quick Review...
What is one thing Emperor Wudi wanted to achieve for China?


What did the Silk road do? What did it provide? How did it work?

What are a few advances developed in the Han Golden Age?
Let a woman retire late to bed, but rise early to duties; let her nor dread tasks by day or by night. Let her not refuse to perform domestic duties whether easy or difficult. That which must be done, let her finish completely, tidily, and systematically, When a woman follows such rules as these, then she may be said to be industrious.
Let a woman be correct in manner and upright in character in order to serve her husband. Let her live in purity and quietness of spirit, and attend to her own affairs. Let her love not gossip and silly laughter. Let her cleanse and purify and arrange in order the wine and the food for the offerings to the ancestors. When a woman observes such principles as these, then she may be said to continue ancestral worship.
Analyze Primary Sources: Read the excerpt and answer questions that follow:
Who was this written by? What clues allow you to deduce this?



What daily routines should and industrious woman follow?



How does a woman's role fulfill the Confusian ideas of order and harmony?



Do you agree or disagree with the teachings of this author? explain?
Ban Zhao of China in 100 CE



go to bed late, get up early, never refuse to do duties, finish tasks completely and well



By accepting her duties and responsibilities, a women would live in harmony
Things to think about...
Ancient Greece
Early people of the Aegean
- Identify the influences on Minoan culture and how the civilization prospered
- How did the Mycenaeans rule the sea trade and start the Trojan War?
- How did the works of Homer influence greek culture?

FOOT BINDING
Full transcript