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Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 6
Transcript of Psychology in Everyday Life Chapter 6
Are we rats in a maze?
Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.
Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which we learn to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
Teaching a reflexive response by using something that already causes the reflex
Unconditioned Stimulus (US): A stimulus that unconditionally triggers a response.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): An originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Unconditioned Response (UR): An unlearned, naturally occurring response.
Conditioned Response (CR): A learned response to a previously neutral (now conditioned) stimulus.
Something that naturally causes a reflex
Something that is taught to cause a reflex
A reflex (occurring naturally)
The same reflex (but occurring in response to something it naturally wouldn’t)
Principles of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition: the initial stage, when we link a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the unconditioned response.
The process of learning a reflex through repetition.
Extinction: The weakening of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus.
The disappearance of a learned reflex when it’s no longer paired.
Discrimination: The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli.
Generalization: After conditioning, the tendency to respond similarly to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.
Attention: You are now part of a select group of people who get Pavlov jokes!
Spontaneous Recovery: The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Do you get it?
Classical Conditioning in Real Life
The Little Albert
John B. Watson
An 11-month old boy named “Albert” was conditioned to fear a white laboratory rat.
Each time he reached for the rat, Watson made a loud clanging noise right behind Albert.
Albert’s fear generalized to anything white and furry (including rabbits and Santa Claus).
The Little Albert Experiment led Watson to conclude that human beings are not the products of genes and heredity but of environment.
We LEARN everything - our fears, our likes, our dislikes, our joys, our inspirations, our love interests...
Is he right?
Counter-conditioning: In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response.
Think of it as “unlearning” a connection by changing the association.
Are fears conditioned?
Do these make you salivate?
Do these images make you feel calm?
Watson says we also learn what's
attractive (or what's not)?
The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
Punishment: An event that decreases the behavior it follows
(ALWAYS DISCOURAGES A BEHAVIOR).
Reinforcement: any event that strengthens the behavior that follows
(ALWAYS ENCOURAGES A BEHAVIOR).
Positive Reinforcement: increases behavior by presenting positive stimuli
(GIVING SOMETHING PLEASANT TO ENCOURAGE A BEHAVIOR)
Negative Reinforcement: increases behavior by stopping negative stimuli
(TAKING AWAY SOMETHING UNPLEASANT TO ENCOURAGE A BEHAVIOR)
Positive Punishment: The response is decreased by a punishing stimulus.
(GIVING SOMETHING UNPLEASANT TO DISCOURAGE A BEHAVIOR)
Negative Punishment: The response is decreased by removal of a pleasant stimulus.
(TAKING AWAY SOMETHING PLEASANT TO DISCOURAGE A BEHAVIOR)
Keeping terms straight...
Positive: doesn’t mean”good;” instead it means adding something or obtaining something
Negative: doesn’t mean “bad;” instead it means removing something or avoiding something
Reinforcement: whether negative or positive, it increases the likelihood of the response
Punishment: whether negative or positive, it decreases the likelihood of the response
Principles of Operant Conditioning
Stimulus generalization and discrimination
Primary and secondary reinforcers and punishers
Shaping and successive approximations
Continuous reinforcement versus intermittent reinforcement
Train your dog?
Train your rat?
Train your friends?
Burrhus Frederick Skinner, 1904-1990
Father of operant conditioning and founder of radical behaviorism.
Radical behaviorism accepts NO internal events (no credit given for thinking, emotions, or perceptions)
Inventor of the operant chamber (commonly called the Skinner Box).
Learning Module - Set to 15:34
in Real Life
Why does reinforcement backfire?
Extrinsic (external) Motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for a reward, such as money, prizes, and praise, or to avoid punishment.
Intrinsic (internal) Motivation: a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake, such as enjoyment of the task and satisfaction of accomplishment.
When preschoolers were promised a prize for drawing with felt-tip pens, the behavior increased.
After they got the prizes, they spent less time with pens than before the study began.
Social-Cognitive Learning Theory
An alternative theory to conditioning...
* This theory says that learning happens as a result of how the environment acts on us AND what we think about that.
* Examples include observational learning, modeling, and latent learning.
Observational learning and modeling
Bandura Clip From Psychology: Inside-Out
Chester the Dog Tries a Lemon
Classical Conditioning in Advertising
Threats of punishment do not deter crime.
Should we physically punish children to change their behavior?
Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten.
This may reinforce parents who think the spanking or swat got rid of the behavior.
Punishment teaches discrimination.
Kids figure out how to avoid the punishment, do not necessarily change the behavior.
Punishment can teach fear.
Kids may come to fear the person giving the punishment or the place it occurred.
Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness by modeling aggression.
Kids may see aggression as a way to cope with problems.
Continuous or intermittent reinforcement?
"Promising people a reward for a task they already enjoy can backfire." (Myers)
A biological explanation for observational learning...
Mirror neurons fire when we watch someone do something in the same way they fire when we actually do it.