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Integration of electric vehicles with the electric grid
Transcript of Integration of electric vehicles with the electric grid
Less than one-tenth the utilization.
One-tenth the capital cost per primer mover kW.
Quick response time.
Low standby cost.
Limited energy storage.
Short device lifetimes.
High energy costs per kWh. Electric system One-twentieth of power capacity.
Tenfold more used.
Tenfold larger the capital cost per primer mover kW.
Slow response time.
High standby cost.
Without energy storage.
Long device lifetimes.
Low energy costs per kWh. Suplementary systems Electric vehicles Battery-electric vehicle Fuel cell vehicle Plug-in hybrid vehicle Electric markets Peak power Spinning reserves Regulation Storage and backup for
renewable energy Required controls Connection to the grid Communication Business models Fleet Aggregator Longer cycle life, smaller size and lower weight.
Minimal adjustments to add V2G.
Suitable for regulation. Important adjustments for V2G.
Suitable for spinning reserves, peak load and regulation up. Differences with hybrids: enlarged battery and an electric plug.
Suitable for regulation and for spinning reserves with support of the internal combustion engine. High levels of power consumption expected.
Needed a few hundred hours per year.
Payment for energy: fuel cell vehicles. Available to serve load in unplanned event.
10 min response.
20 calls per year and 1 hour per call.
Payment for capacity and for energy: fuel cell vehicles. It is used to fine-tune the grid by matching generation to load demand.
Real-time control of the grid operator.
Regulation up and down.
It is called 400 times per day for a few minutes.
Payment for capacity and energy: battery electric vehicles, wear is not significant. PV: from peak power until load peak. About 15 million of BEV could provide storage for 100 GW.
Wind energy: 100 GW could be regulated with 1.5 million of BEV. 21 million of BEV could provide operating reserves. A serial number for the vehicle.
An electronic identification of which fixed electric utility meter the vehicle is plugged into.
An on board certified meter.
Electronic verification that the vehicle is plugged in to a connection of known kW capacity.
An electronic offer and acceptance of a spot power contract. Fleet connection: 15 kW, 80 A, 210 V.
Domestic connection: 10 kW, 40 A, 210 V. Centralized control.
100 vehicles can offer 1 MW of regulation.
Easy prediction of time and location.
Advantages: technology leadership, economic development, reduction of GHG emissions. Thank you for your attention References Willet Kempton, Jasna Tomic, Vehicle-to-grid fundamentals: Calculating capacity and net revenue.
Willet Kempton, Jasna Tomic, Vehicle-to-grid power. implementation: From stabilizing the grid to supporting large-scale renewable energy.
Pieter Jacqmaer, Plug-in HEVs using d, q Current Components for Single-Phase Grid-Coupling.
Alec N. Brooks, Vehicle-to-Grid Demonstration Project: Grid Regulation Ancillary Service with a Battery Electric Vehicle.
Willet Kempton, Victor Udo, A Test of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) for Energy Storage and Frequency Regulation in the PJM System.
A. C. Propulsion, AC-150 Gen-2 EV power system: integrated drive and charging for electric vehicles, Product specification sheet.