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The Solar System

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on 30 November 2014

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Transcript of The Solar System

THE KUIPER BELT AND TNOs
- The Kuiper Belt is the region of the Solar System residing beyond Neptune can be considered as the second asteroid belt, although it is a lot larger, up to
twenty
times as wide and 200 times more massive.

- The Kuiper Belt contains most of the asteroids and celestial bodies of the Solar System, and is the origin of most trans-neptunian objects. Pluto could be considered as a trans-neptunian object as it fits the description and has similar characteristics (mass etc.).

- Most of the asteroids in the Kuiper Belt are composed of ices: methane, ammonia, water ice etc., which is very similar to the compositions of comets.

- Beyond the Kuiper Belt lay the Scattered Disc and the Oort Cloud.
FIN
LAND
_______________________________
Surface Area: 338 424 km²
EARTH
________________
Surface Area: 510,072,000 km²
OUR
SOLAR
SYSTEM

By
Lok To
Lam 14I

By definition, a planetary system, as its name suggests, comprises of a star and it's orbitals (known as celestial bodies).

Our star is known as the
Sun
(Sol in latin, hence
Sol
ar), there are 8 planets orbiting the sun, and over 150 moons orbiting the planets.

The planets can be divided into two types;
Terrestrial
and
Gas Giants
. The terrestrial planets are the four planets closest to the Sun. The Gas Giants can be found past the Asteroid Belt, which lies between Mars and Saturn
The average human height is approximately 1.7 meters.
WHAT DEFINES OUR
SOLAR SYSTEM
?
_______________________________
Neptune's largest moon; Triton, was a
TNO captured by Neptune's gravity.
___________________________________
CELESTIAL BODIES
STARS
PLANETS
OTHERS
SUN
Yellow Dwarf
1 Solar Radius
Orange Giant
25.7 Solar Radii
ARCTURUS
RIGEL
79 Solar Radii
Blue-White Supergiant
VY CANIS MAJORIS
~1420 Solar Radii
Red Hypergiant
(695 800 Km)
(17 870 000 Km)
(54 250 000 Km)
(~987,600,000 km)
2014
MERCURY
SOLAR FLARE
A solar flare is an enormous explosion in the solar atmosphere, involving sudden bursts of energy.
- It is the smallest and closest (first) planet to the
Sun
.
- A year on Mercury is the equivalent of 88 earth days.
- A day on Mercury lasts for 58 earth days, 15 earth hours, and 30 earth minutes.
VENUS
- The second planet from the
Sun
, often called as Earth's twin, as their size, mass, distance from sun and gravity are quite similar.
EARTH
TYPE
:
Terrestrial
SURFACE

AREA
:
510,072,000 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
149,600,000 km (
1 Astronomical Unit
)
RADIUS
:
6,371 km
MASS
:
5.97 × 10^24 kg
MOONS
:
1 (Moon)
GRAVITY
:
9.81m/s²
- It is the third planet from the
Sun
and our home planet, and is the only planet located in the habitable zone of our Solar System. Earth has a magnetic field and a protective atmosphere.
- Earth's surface is mostly covered by water, and is the only planet known to possess water in liquid form.
- It is notable that Earth's axis is not straight (0°), but instead has a tilt of
23° to the right, which is also why we have seasons.
- Planets can be defined as celestial bodies which elliptically orbit the Sun which are larger than the largest former planet (Pluto). They also need to be able to maintain a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round shape) and an unobstructed orbital path.
A diagram showing the planets of the Solar system, Pluto and their tilts. Numbers 1-8 from smallest to largest.
- There are two types of planets in our Solar System; of which are
terrestrial
and
gas giant
.
TERRESTRIAL
GAS GIANT
- Mostly composed of rocks and heavy metals.
- Varied terrain (hills, volcanoes, etc.).
- Thinner atmospheres than Gas Giants'.
- Have secondary atmospheres.
- Mostly composed of gas.
- Larger than terrestrial planets.
- Generally have a lot more moons.
- Much shorter days due to gaseousness.
8
7
6
5
4
3
1
2
- Stars are massive spheres of plasma held together by their own gravity.
- The Sun, the star of our solar system, provides the chance of life being,
by emitting light and warmth to planets orbiting it.
- There is a habitable zone within the solar system
of most stars. The habitable zone for humans is
where water can exist in liquid form at a usable
temperature. The only planet in the habitable zone
is
Earth
. Neigbouring planets
Venus
and
Mars
are nearby but only a tad outside the habitable zone.
Mars
is the next most habitable planet in the solar system.
The brighter the star, the hotter ;)
Satelites
Asteroids & Meteors
Comets
THE SUN
MAKEMAKE
SEDNA
HAUMEA
ERIS
DYSNOMIA
- Planets in other planetary systems are regarded as
exoplanets
.
The Great Red Spot
Phobos
Deimos
MARS
TYPE:
Terrestrial
SURFACE AREA:
74
,800,000 km²
DISTANCE FROM SUN:

57,910,000 km
RADIUS:
2,440
km
MASS:
3.285 × 10^23kg
MOONS:

None

GRAVITY:
3.7 m/s²
- The surface temperature can reach a
+450
°
C
. Since it doesn't have a real atmosphere to trap any heat, nighttime temperatures can drop to minus
-170
°
C
, that's over
600°C
difference, the greatest in the entire Solar System.
TYPE:

Terrestrial

SURFACE AREA:

460,234,317 km²
DISTANCE FROM SUN:
108,200,000 km
RADIUS:

6,052 km
MASS:

4.87 × 10^24kg
MOONS:

None
GRAVITY:

8.87 m/s²
(Roman Messenger God)
(Roman Goddess of Love and Beauty)
FUN FACT: It is the brightest object in the night sky!
- The
hottest
(no pun) planet in the solar system,
due to an atmosphere comprised of mostly CO2,
causing it to have a surface temperature of
+465°C
.
- An extremely dry planet, has thousands of volcanoes.

- Venusian days last 243 Earth days, with a year being 225 days. Can you imagine a day longer than a year?
(Home sweet home)
MOON
TYPE
:
Natural Satelite (Moon)
SURFACE

AREA
:
37,930,000 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

EARTH
:
384,400 km (
1 Lunar Distance
)
RADIUS
:
1,737 km
MASS
:
7.35×10^22 kg
PLANET
:
Earth
GRAVITY
:
1.62 m/s²
- Like most moons, it does not have an atmosphere.
- The Moon's gravity pulls on Earth's oceans and distorts them, causing tides.
- The Moon also allows us on Earth to occasionally witness a Lunar or Solar Eclipse.
(Roman God of War)
- Also known as the
''Red Planet''
, Mars is the fourth planet from the
Sun
and the furthest terrestrial planet. It is the second smallest terrestrial planet.
Mars is also one of the few planets visible to the naked from Earth.
TYPE
:
Terrestrial
SURFACE

AREA
:
510,072,000 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
149,600,000 km
RADIUS
:
6 371 km
MASS
:
5.97 × 10^24 kg
MOONS
:
2 (Largest: Phobos)
GRAVITY
:
3.71 m/s²
POPULATION
:
1-2 robots
THE ASTEROID BELT
- Asteroids are small, airless celestial bodies revolving around the stars that are too small to be called planets. Some asteroids large enough qualify as
minor planets
(a.k.a. planetoids).

- The Asteroid Belt is one of the major belts which contain the majority of asteroids in the Solar System, with the other being the Kuiper belt.

- The Asteroid Belt is also notable for being the divider between the
terrestrial
and
gas giant
planets, as it resides between Mars and Jupiter.

- Asteroid sizes can range from tiny (diameter ~1 cm) to massive (up to a megameter).
- Some asteroids, with enough mass, could gain
a natural satelite (e.g. moon).

- To the left there is a photo of an asteroid, named
243 Ida
, with it's moon, Dactyl.
CERES
TYPE
:
Asteroid (Minor Planet)
SURFACE

AREA
:
2,850,000 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
413,700,000 km
RADIUS
:
475 km
MASS
: ~9
x 10^20 kg
MOONS
:
None
GRAVITY
:
0.27 m/s²
- Ceres is the largest known object in the Asteroid Belt, having a diameter of nearly one megameter. Despite it's mass, it has no natural satelites.
JUPITER
TYPE
:
Gas Giant
SURFACE

AREA
:
61,418,738,571 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
778,500,000 km
RADIUS
:
69,911 km
MASS
:
1.9 x 10^27

kg
MOONS
: ~67
(Largest: Ganymede)
GRAVITY
:
24.79 m/s²
(The Roman Supreme God)
- Jupiter is the fifth planet from the
Sun
, as well as the largest of all planets in the Solar System. It also has a large number of natural satelites due to it's massiveness and immense gravitational force.
- As a gas giant, it is mainly comprised of gas, having an atmosphere made of mainly molecular hydrogen and helium. It leaves only a small, solid core at the center, made of rock, metallic hydrogen among other elements.
- Jupiter is also known to contain the Great Red Spot, which is a huge storm that has been raging for at least half a century, it is large enough to fit 3 Earths in it.
SATURN
TYPE
:
Gas Giant
SURFACE

AREA
:
42,700,000,000 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
1,433,000,000 km
RADIUS
:
58,232 km
MASS
: 5.68
× 10^26 kg
MOONS
: ~62
(Largest: Titan)
GRAVITY
:
10.44 m/s²
DIAMETER OF RING:
~250 000 km
(God of Agriculture)
- It is most likely the second and only planet to possibly host any life, as traces of ice-rich soil have been found on the polar caps.

- It's surface temperature (
20°C
to
-150°C
), although colder, is the closest we will get to earth-like temperatures in our Solar System.
- Saturn's rings are composed almost entirely of ice, although there are traces of rock. Despite the large appearance, the ring is extraordinarily thin: though they're 250,000 km or more in diameter they're less than one kilometer thick, with very little material in it.
- The sixth planet from the
Sun
and the second largest planet if rings aren't taken into account, otherwise it would be the largest.
- Like Jupiter, Saturn is also a gas giant and therefore composed mainly of gas, with the only solid part of it being the core.
Jupiter actually has rings too, they are just less visible!
URANUS
TYPE
:
Gas Giant
SURFACE

AREA
:
8,083,079,690 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
2,877,000,000 km
RADIUS
:
25,362 km
MASS
: 8.68
× 10^25 kg
MOONS
: 27
(Largest: Titania)
GRAVITY
:
8.69 m/s²
RADIUS OF RING:
35
- Notable for it's unusual tilt of about 98
°
, which theories suggest
is due to multiple impacts over a long time, altering the planet's tilt.
(Roman God of the Sky)
- The seventh planet from the
Sun
, also the third largest planet and gas giant.
A day on (in) Uranus
only
lasts 17 Earth hours and 14 minutes!
- Jupiter also protects other planets with it's gravity!
- Its atmosphere is comprised of hydrogen, methane
and helium, which covers a liquid hydrogen layer,
which covers another layer of highly compressed icy water, ammonia and methane, just before the core of molten rock.
NEPTUNE
TYPE
:
Gas Giant
SURFACE

AREA
:
7,618,272,763 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
4,503,000,000 km
RADIUS
:
24,622 km
MASS
: 1.02
× 10^26 kg
MOONS
:
13 (Largest: Triton)
GRAVITY
:
11.15 m/s²
(Roman God of the Seas)
- Similar in size, structure and composition with Uranus. Except it has a
much longer orbital period of 165 years, almost double that of Uranus', although days last slightly shorter (16 hours).
- The furthest planet from the
Sun
as well as the smallest of the gas giants. Of all planets in our Solar System, it is the 4th largest planet.
- It has a very long orbital period of approximately 84 Earth year.
- With minimum atmospheric temperature of
-224°C
, only rivaled by Neptune's
-201°C
. Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system.
- Neptune also has rings, although less visible too, they are likely made up of ice particles mixed with dust grains and other substances.
- Minor planets beyond Neptune are regarded as TNOs (Trans-Neptunian Objects).
PLUTO
TYPE
:
Dwarf Planet
SURFACE

AREA
:
16,647,940 km²
DISTANCE

FROM

SUN
:
5,906,380,000 km (Average)
RADIUS
:
1,184 km
MASS
: 1.309
× 10^22 kg
MOONS
:
1 (Charon)
GRAVITY
:
0.658m/s²
(Roman God of the Underworld)
- Pluto, the former ninth planet and smallest planet had been reclassified as a
Dwarf Planet
, this was because Pluto was unable to fufill the third requirement to be called a planet.
- Although Pluto is tiny (smaller than Russia) and has a very weak gravitational force (less than 1/2 of the Moon's), it was still able to obtain a small moon for itself, known as Charon.
- Pluto is considered a TNO as it resides beyond Neptune.
- Unlike planets, Pluto has a strange orbital path, which intersects Neptune's, its more of an oval-ish shaped path.
MINOR PLANETS BEYOND PLUTO
- These dwarf planets lay far beyond Pluto and are considered as Kuiper Belt Objects. This could quite possibly be Pluto's origin.
- The Sun is our solar system's star and thereforee center of it, holding everything in orbit with it's immense gravitational force.
TYPE:
Yellow Dwarf (Star)
SURFACE AREA:
6.09 × 10^12 km²
RADIUS:
695,800 km
MASS:
1.99 × 10^30 kg
GRAVITY:
274m/s²
- The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, is about 4.24 lightyears away from the Sun, in a planetary system called Alpha Centauri.
(Luna)
Less dense than
water
!
Hi'Iaka
Namaka
Full transcript