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Telecommunications, Networking, and the Internet

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Jim Burleson

on 25 April 2017

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Transcript of Telecommunications, Networking, and the Internet

Telecommunications, Networking, and the Internet
Telecommuincations: Overview
Telecommunications
The electronic transmission of data for communications
Telecommunications medium
Any material substance that carries an electronic signal to support communications between a sending and receiving device
Channel Bandwidth
The transmission capacity of a network, stated in bits per second.
The maximum amount of data that can pass from one point to another in a unit of time
Broadband communications
A telecommunications system that can exchange data very quickly
>4Mbps downstream and >1Mbps upstream
http://speedtest.net/
Communications Media
Wired
Wireless
Broadcast of communications in one of three frequency ranges: microwave, radio, and infrared
Near Field Communication (NFC)
Bluetooth
Ultra wideband (UWB)
Wi-Fi
Whispernet
Hardware
Devices
Modem
Translates data from a digital form (as it is stored in the computer) into analog signal that can be transmitted over analog media
Switch
A small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within the same local area network (LAN).
Bridge
Connects one LAN to another LAN that uses the same telecommunications protocol
Switch vs. Hub
Hub – divides bandwidth equally between all connected devices
Switch – intelligently allocates bandwidth to the device which is receiving information
Router
An intelligent connecting device that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send it toward its destination.
Routes messages within a network, across connected networks, and/or across the Internet
Gateway
A node (often a router) on a network that serves as an access point to another network or the Internet.
Services
Services
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
Telecommunications service that delivers high-speed Internet access to homes and small businesses over the existing phone lines
Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) line
Does not require an additional phone line and yet provides “always-on” Internet access
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
Enables voice conversations to be converted into packets of data that can be sent over a data network
Or, How do I share information from one device to another device as efficiently as possible?
Networks
Computer network
Communications system created by linking two or more devices and establishing a standard methodology in which they can communicate
Two Components
Nodes
Links
Two ways to classify
By size
Personal area network (PAN)
Wireless network that connects information technology devices within a range of 33 feet or so
Local area network (LAN)
Connects computer systems and devices within a small area, such as an builiding, of up to half a mile
Wide area network (WAN)
Connects wide geographic regions
By topology
Topology – the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers (and other network devices) in a network
Star Topology – All devices on the network connect to a single hub
Bus Topology - One station transmits signals, which travel in both directions along a single transmission segment
Ring Topology – Connects network components in a closed loop
Transmission
Three main activities
Slicing digital messages into parcels called packets
Sending the packets along different communication paths as they become available
Reassembling the packets once they arrive at their destinations
Packet Switching
Protocols
Standards that specify the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission
Protocols govern several levels of a telecommunications network
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Developed during the early 1970s to support the Department of Defense transmit data over large differences
TCP – governs packet division and reassembly
IP – governs the delivery of packets between destinations
Software
Network Software
Network operating system (NOS)
Operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users
Network management software
Simplifies the process of updating files and programs on computers on the network
The Internet
The Internet - History
1962 - Licklider & Clark - "On-Line Man-Computer Interaction"
ARPANET: A project started by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in 1969 to create data communications that can withstand nuclear attack
ARPA- Advanced Research Projects Agency, granted funds for military research.
The ancestor of the Internet
ARPANET broken up into two parts: MILNET (military-sites), smaller ARPANET (non-military sites, still focused on research and education)
Other networks emerge: CSNET, HEPNET, NSFNET
Definitions
Internet
Collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information
Packets
Carry the addresses of its sender and its receiver
Backbone
One of the Internet’s high-speed, long-distance communications links
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Assigned address
Internet Service Providers
A company that provides access to the Internet for a monthly fee
Many ISPs and online services offer broadband Internet access through digital subscriber lines (DSLs), cable, or satellite transmission
World Wide Web
Inventor: Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva.
Originally meant to facilitate the internal sharing of documents among physicists at CERN
Key innovation - hyperlinks
Hyperlinks allow users to go directly from one website to another, creating an interconnected network of knowledge
Web 1.0 vs. 2.0
Web 1.0 – The Informative Web
Presentation of static information
Every user saw the same content
“Push” information – no ability for feedback
Web 2.0 – The Social Web
The Web as a computing platform that supports software applications and the sharing of information between users
HTML
The language of web sites
Handles formatting of information for display
Uses a series of <tags> to alter information on the web site
Connecting Networks
Intranet
A restricted network that relies on Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment within the company for information sharing, communications, collaboration, web publishing, and the support of business process
Extranet
An extension of an intranet that is only available to authorized outsiders, such as customers, partners, and suppliers
Virtual private network (VPN)
Secure connection between two points on the Internet
What can we do with
the internet?

Search Engines
Search engine
Enables you to find information on the Web
Scours the Web with bots that follow all Web links in an attempt to catalog every Web page by topic
Important businesses tool used to drive visitors to Web sites
Blogging
Web log (blog)
Web site that people can create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings
Video log (vlog)
Video content placed on the Internet using the same overall approach as a blog
Podcast
Audio broadcast over the Internet
Social Networks
Provide Web-based tools for users to:
Share information about themselves with people on the Web
MySpace and Facebook
Popular social networking sites
LinkedIn
Social network that allows professionals to find others who work in the same field
Media Sharing
Provide methods for members to store and share digital media files on the Web
YouTube
Flickr
Content Streaming
Method for transferring multimedia files, radio broadcasts, and other content over the Internet so that the data stream plays continuously
Internet Issues
Management issues
No centralized governing body controls the Internet
Service and speed issues
Traffic volume on company intranets is growing even faster than the Internet
Privacy, fraud, security, and unauthorized Internet sites
Unauthorized and unwanted Internet sites are also problems some companies face
http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/wed-july-12-2006/headlines---internet
IP Address
4 byte address for each machine
(2^8 * 4, or 2^32 = 4 * 10^9 devices)
New standard is IP v6 (3.2 * 10^38 devices)
A unique number that identifies where computers are located on a network
Every machine on the internet has an IP address
Some devices have two IP addresses
Internal - for within-network communication
External - for public communication
IP Address
Domain Name Server
System which converts user-friendly addresses to IP Addresses
Stored in a table, which contains all user-friendly address to IP address conversions
Managed by ICANN
® Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
Domain Name Server
Twisted-Pair Ethernet Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber-optic Cable
Packets
Data is transmitted through telecommunications media via packets
Packets are single units of binary data, designed to be pieced back together at the destination
Shannon & Weaver, 1949 Communications Model

Two major questions:
How do we find the right device?
How do we get the information to that device?
Full transcript