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Run-Ons and Fragments

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by

Britney Devlin

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of Run-Ons and Fragments

An error that occurs when two sentences are joined incorrectly.


Run-Ons
Run-Ons and Fragments
A fused Sentence
&
A comma splice
TYpes Of Run-Ons
When two sentences are joined without any punctuation

College costs are rising many students are worried.
Fused Sentence
When two sentences are joined with just a comma.

College costs are rising, many students are worried.
Comma Splice
An incomplete Sentence

every sentence must include
:
~ a subject
~a verb
~A complete thought
Fragments
No Verb
:
The actors in the play.

(What point is being made about the actors?)
No Subject
:
Were very talented.

(Who were very talented?)
No subject or Verb
:
Very Talented.

(Who was very Talented?)
Not a Complete Thought
:
Because the actors in the play were very talented.

(what happned because they were talented?)

Recognizng A Fragment
Every sentence must include a subject and a verb.
Missing-Subject
Phrase Fragments
Correcting Run-Ons
1. Using a period to create two diffrent sentences.
College costs are rising. Many students are worried.
2. Using Coordinating Conjunction to connect ideas.
College costs are rising, and many students are worried.
3.Use a semicolon to connect ideas.
College costs are rising; many students are worried.
4.Use a semicolon followed by a transitional word or phrase to connect ideas
College costs are rising; as a result, many students are worried.
5.Use a dependent word to connect ideas
Because college costs are rising, many students are worried.

Types of Fragments

Missing-Subject Fragments
Phrase Fragments
-ing Fragments
Dependent-Clause Fragments
See Handout for rules
He packed his bag. And also took his coat.
"And also took his coat." would be a fragment. To fix this fragment you would attach it to the sentence before it.
He packed his bag and also took his coat.
A
Phrase
is a group of words without a verb, subject, or both. When you punctuate a phrase as a sentence you create a fragment.

3 types of Phrase Fragments:
Appositive Fragment, Prepositional Phrase Fragment, and Infinitive Fragments
Appositive Fragments
An Appositive identifies, renames, or describes an adjacent noun or pronoun. An Appositive can not stand alone in a sentence.
He decorates the room in his favorite colors. Brown and black.
To Fix this fragment attach it to the sentence Before it with the noun or pronoun that it is describing.
He decorates the room in his favorite colors, brown and black.
If an appositive introduced by an expression like such as,except, or for instance it is still a _ fragment.
Prepositional Phrase
Fragment
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and its object. A prepositional phrase can not stand alone as a sentence . To correct this fragment attach it to the sentence before it.
She Promise to stand by him. In sickness and in health.
She promised to stand by him in sickness and in health.
Infinitive Fragments
An Infinitive consists of to plus the base form of the verb (to be, to go, to write). An initiative Phrase (to be free, to go home, to write a novel) can not stand alone as a sentence to fix this fragment attach it to the sentence before it.
Eric considered dropping out of school. To start his own business.
Eric Cosidered dropping out of school to start his own business.
-ing Fragments
When using an -ing verb with out a helping verb in a sentence you create a fragment. (is looking, was looking, were looking, and so on) The best way to fix this fragment is to attach it to the sentence before it.
The twins are full of mischief. Always looking for trouble.
The twins are full of mischief, always looking for trouble.
When writing be sure not to use the -ing verb being as if it were a complete verb.
I decided to take a nap. The outcome being I slept through class.
To fix this fragment, substitute a form of the verb be (is, was, are, or were)
I decided to take a nap. The outcome was that I slept through class.
Dependent-Clause Fragments
A dependent clause is a group of words including a subject and a verb indrouced by dependent words such as although, because, that or after , but doesnt express a complete thought.
To fix the fragment you must complete the thought
This statement includes a subject (Simon)and a verb (won) but does not include a complete idea. What happened after Simon won? Complete the thought to fix the fragment.
After Simon won the lottery, he quit his night job.
Although Marisol had always dreamed of visiting America.
This statement is a dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction. To fix this fragment attach it to an independent clause.
Although Marisol had always dreamed of visiting America, she did not have enough money for the trip until 1985
Novelist Richard Write, who came to Paris in 1947.
In the statement above a relitive pronoun crates a dependent clause. The statement also includes a subject and a complete verb, but not a complete idea. To fix the fragment add the words needed.
Novelist Richard Write, who came to Paris in 1947, spent the rest of his life there.
After Simon won the lottery.
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