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History of Teenage Pregnancies
Transcript of History of Teenage Pregnancies
1900's 1930's By 1900, the timing of marriage and and parenthood rose as the country became industrialized (History of Teenage Childbearing 8). Due to the mass production of WW2, women became more independent and worked rather than starting families right away (History of Teenage Childbearing 8). 1900's During the 1950's and early 1960's, the issue concerning rates of teenage child bearing emerged when they reached a historical peak and public obsession (History of Teenage Childbearing 1). 1950's Due to the postwar "baby boom," most young women were having premarital sex which increased
the demand for public assistance and services to single mothers (History of Teenage Childbearing 12). 1960's 1965 "In 1965, a young assistant secretary of labor in the Johnson administration, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, helped to place the issue of teenage childbearing on the public agenda... He wrote a highly controversial report on the state of the "black family" in America" (History of Childbearing 13). A research center devoted to reproductive health, (The Guttmacher Institute) lobbied for expanded services for unmarried teens, subsidized with federal dollars (History of Teenage Childbearing 15). -1970 1972 politicians, policymakers and
advocates, the media,
service providers and
practitioners come to recognize,
respond to, and shape policies
assess the effects of those policies. When there's a peak about
highlighting the problem,
attention rises from
to a period of
“alarmed discovery and euphoric excitement.” "As policymakers and the
public come to recognize
the costs of making
public interest wanes,
and this gradual decline
is a prelude to a
when reformers confront
social and political resistance." "Finally, Downs identiﬁes a
post-problem stage of 'lesser attention'
'spasmodic re-occurrence of interest'." Concluding to how teenage childbearing occurs. The economist Anthony Downs
called the social process as an
“issue attention cycle”
(History of Teenage Childbearing 7). The first nationally representative survey of teenage sexual behavior in the late 1960's and early 1970's were conducted by Melvin Zelnik, John Kantner, and Kathleen Ford in 1981. A result example from the survey include "the proportion of teenagers who had ever had sex by age eighteen doubled from about one-fourth of all women born in the 1940's
to more than half of women born two decades later" (History of Teenage Childbearing 11-12). "Women often became pregnant in the
anticipation that their partner would
marry them." Thus,
were an integral feature
of the courtship system
(History of Teenage
Childbearing 9). "The fact that nearly half of all teenagers in the 1950's who married were pregnant at the time helps to account for both the huge surge in marriage rates and the high rate of teenage parenthood during this era" (History of Teenage Childbearing 9-10). look at this world... and then take a look at... yes...
America. Now, America has a... ut there's a problem... ...more and more
pregnant. so let's go back
to when it first began... government finally got a hint after two decades 40's 50's 60's Because of the Moynihan report,
interest in the issue grew. Several years
later, a highly respected demographer,
Arthur Campbell, wrote an assessment for the consequences of early childbearing for teenage mothers:
"The girl who has an illegitimate child at the age of 16 suddenly has 90 percent of her life’s script written for her. She will probably drop out of school; even if someone else in her family helps to take care of the baby, she will probably not be able to ﬁnd a steady job that pays enough to provide for herself and her child; she may feel impelled to marry someone she might not otherwise have chosen. Her life choices are few, and most of them are bad" (History of Teenage Childbearing 15). Family planners and sex educators
actually believed that the problem resulted
from lack of access to contraception and
legal restrictions on abortion (History of Teenage Childbearing 15). As a result, it was the Guttmacher Institute
that created the impression that
the United States faced
an “epidemic” of teenage childbearing
(History of Teenage Childbearing 15). "From 1973,
the ratio of abortions to live births rose from
280 per 1,000 to 462 in 1985"
(History of Teenage
Childbearing 18). Also in 1970, Title X was enacted for the Public Health Service Act. It is "the only Federal grant program dedicated solely to providing individuals with comprehensive family planning and related preventive health services. The Title X program is designed to provide access to contraceptive services, supplies and information to all who want and need them. By law, priority is given to persons from low-income families" (History of Title X). 1973 "On January 22, 1973,
the United States Supreme Court,
in a 7-2 decision,
handed down two rulings
legalizing abortion in America"
(About Abortion). "The use of abortion
rose rapidly in the
decade after legalization"
(History of Teenage
Childbearing 18). 1985 1995 President Bill Clinton "singled out
teenage childbearing as
'our most serious social problem'"
during his State
of the Union Address in
1995 (History of
Teenage Childbearing 1). "Clinton was not the ﬁrst president to take note of the costs of early childbearing.
Beginning with Jimmy Carter’s administration,
every president since has put
the issue high on his
domestic agenda" (History of
Teenage Childbearing 1). Due to results of a poll conducted in 1995,
an advocacy group "aimed"
for preventing teenage pregnancy
concluded that "the number one symptom
of erosion in the family cohesiveness
is the spread of teenage pregnancy"
(History of Teenage Childbearing 1). The poll results show
that more people were troubled by
than the growth of non-marital
childbearing in the population. "A poll conducted by the Public Policy Institute of California revealed that more than two-ﬁfths of those surveyed regarded teenage pregnancy as a “big problem” in their community, and despite a sharp and steady drop in the rate of pregnancy and childbearing over the past ﬁfteen years, nearly three out of four believed that the problem had been increasing or staying at the same level" (History of Teenage Childbearing 1-2). 2005-2006 "Data from the federally funded Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, compiled by the Guttmacher Institute, reveals that pregnancies for 15 to 19-year-olds rose 3 percent between 2005-2006;
the first increase in teen pregnancies in over a decade" (Aleff). Due to reports by The Washington Post,
"About 7 percent of American females will get pregnant while they are teenagers. Of teen mothers, 2/3 live in poverty, less than 1/2 graduate high school, and only 2 percent will graduate college by the age of 30" (Aleff). "The Washington Post notes this research comes as the Senate considers allocating $50 million to abstinence-only groups. Over the past decade, $1.5 billion has been spent by federal and state governments on abstinence-only programs. Currently, an estimated 30 percent of U.S. school teach abstinence-only sex ed" (Aleff). 2009 MTV's television shows, 16 & Pregnant and Teen Mom, that first aired in 2009 glamorized teen pregnancies, almost encouraging the issue. The newer generation idolizes these young girls on the shows and aspire to be like them. These should not be the "role models" teenage girls are looking up to (Schmidt). This public issue profoundly has political and social consequences that causes a lot of issues (History of Teenage Childbearing 17). acceptability of premarital sex the ethics of abortion providing birth control
young and unmarried costs for providing
unmarried mothers making adoption
appear "unattractive" present day "Social problems arise when widespread infractions of social rules (or what used to be called morals) take place" (History of Teenage Childbearing 6). Over many decades, feminist scholars, scholars of all colors, critical theorists, and some social scientists have noticed how the issue of early childbearing can be problematic for young parents and their families (History of Teenage Childbearing 3). This is why any scholar must go through decades of evidence in order to comprehend the impact of early childbearing on the lives of the young parents and their children (History of Teenage Childbearing 4). Also what is
needed to be
is how: demographic and
social facts have
been shaped and
by researchers the
media politicians policymakers advocates the public Works Cited
"About Abortion." Pro Life Action. Aug. 2011. Web. 3
Aleff, Shawn. “Abstinence-only Programs
Blamed For Sudden Rise in Teen Pregnancy.” Daily Loaf. 28 Jan. 2010. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.
“History of Title X.” U.S Department of Health
& Human Services. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.
Schmidt, Sena. “16 & Pregnant: Reality
Documentary or Short Cut to Fame?” Examiner. 18 July 2009. Web. 3 Feb. 2013.
“The History of Teenage Childbearing as a
Social Problem.” Russellsage. n. pag (1-23). Web. 3 Feb. 2013.