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Transcript of Endocrine System
Major Endocrine Organs
*Highest level of endocrine control.
* Liasion between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
*Secretes regulatory hormones that control activity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
*Controls the sympathetic output to the adrenal medullae.
* 3 parts: Anterior, intermediate & posterior.
* Is made up of the hypophyseal portal system, which is a series of capillary beds.
* Consists of two lobes. These lobes are connected by an area called an isthmus.
Anterior Pituitary Hormones:
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
* Goes to the thyroid and stimulates the release of thyroid hormones.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
* Stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
* Increases the metabolism of glucose to make more energy available.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
* Aids in sperm development in males.
* Stimulates estrogen production in females.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
* Induces the production of reproductive cells in females.
* Promotes secretion of estrogen and progestins in females.
*Stimulates the production of sex hormones in the testes of males, called androgens, such as testosterone.
* Aids in mammary gland development.
* Stimulates milk production.
* May aid in the regulation of androgens in males.
Growth Hormone (GH)
*Effects all cells of the body.
* Accelerates the rate of protein synthesis, which stimulates cell growth and replication.
Hormones of the Intermediate Pituitary
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
* Stimulates the melanocytes of the skin, which increases the production of melanin. Melanin is the brown pigment in skin.
Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary
Many hormones are manufactured here and then secreted to control other endocrine organs, for example the thyroid......
Secretes these hormones, which are made in the hypothalamus......
* Generally speaking, ADH is released in response to a change in blood pressure, blood volume or a change in osmotic concentration of body fluids.
*ADH decreases the amount of water the kidneys secrete out of the body.
* Causes uterine contractions in women during childbirth.
* Creates milk letdown for nursing mothers.
* Contains four iodine ions.
* Goes to the follicle cells of the ovaries of women and the nurse cells of the testes of men.
* Goes to the follicle cells of the ovaries and the interstitial cells of the testes.
* Contains three iodine ions.
Functions of the Thyroid Hormones:
* Affects most cells of the body.
*Increases the metabolic rate of cells. The cell consumes more energy and generates more heat. This is called the calorigenic effect.
* Is important in the normal development of children's nervous system and muscular and skeletal systems.
* Develops and matures lymphocytes (white blood cells), that are responsible for immunity.
Testes: Produce Testosterone
* Four glands located in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
* Secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) in response to below normal calcium concentration in the blood.
By Jennifer Anderson & Suzanne Kephart
Calcitrol: Increase Ca levels
Erythropoietan: Stimulate production of RBC's
Increase O2 in blood
Renin: Increase water reabsorption
* Two parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
The Adrenal Cortex:
* Produces more than 24 steroid hormones called corticosteroids.
* Stores lipids like cholesterol and fatty acids.
Some Corticosteroids of the Adrenal Cortex:
-Increases sensitivity of salt taste receptors.
-Stimulated by low sodium levels or high potassium levels.
-Aids in the control of water loss.
-Increases the creation of "new sugar", (gluconeogenesis), from fatty acids.
-Has an anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing white blood cell activity.
-After reaching the bloodstream, some androgens are converted into estrogens.
-Responsible for sex characteristics.
-Promote muscle mass and support sex drive in females.
The Adrenal Medulla
*Located in the interior portion of the adrenal gland.
*Is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.
Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla:
-Makes up 75-80% of the secretions from the adrenal medulla.
-Makes up the rest of the secretions.
Release into capillaries at posterior pituitary
Stimulate synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones at anterior lobes.
Prevent synthesis and secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe.
Uterine contraction and milk let down
Water reabsorption at the kidney
Exocrine and Endocrine cells
*Pancreatic Acini = clusters of gland cells
*Secrete digestive enzymes and alkaline fluid
*Alpha cells produce glucagon
*Beta cells produce insulin
*Helps aid in sleep
*Regulates circadian rhythm
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Brain natriuretic peptide
= Releasing Hormone
= Inhibiting Hormone
Promotes the loss of sodium and water by the kidneys. Therefore lowering blood volume, thus lowering blood pressure.
* Is more active in young children. Becomes somewhat inactive in adults.
"Extension of the hypothalamus......."
Communicates with the pituitary gland via negative feedback loop........
The pituitary gland recognizes how much thyroid hormone is in the blood and when more is needed the pituitary gland sends thyroid stimulating hormone, which causes the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones.......
- Also regulated by the pituitary gland.