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Period Three- 600 CE to 1450 CE

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Abby Lammers

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Period Three- 600 CE to 1450 CE

PERIOD THREE WHAP MAP MELACCA Founded by a Hindu prince who was chased out of India
Government: One supreme ruler and four main advisers (similar to today's cabinet members)
Trade: Had a huge hold in the spice trade- in fact, it was a valuable location because it controlled some of the straits leading to the spice islands
Religion: Mostly Islamic, but there were lots of religions and languages because it was a trade city Melacca BAGHDAD Baghdad 880: City founded by the Abbasid Caliphate, indicating the spread of Islam (the previous capital was Damascus)
It had a few invasions- nothing huge
lots of educational institutions
extremely populous
Outbreaks of Cholera and Plague CAHOKIA Cahokia Made of mounds
largest city in North America until 1800
Very diverse trade city- almost all trade in North America went through Cahokia at one point or another
Believed in sacrifice VENICE Venice Italian city-state
Originally Roman (and therefore Christian)
Very populous- made up of refugees from other Roman cities
Known for extensive waterways
Very powerful trade city
At the end of one spoke of the Silk Roads
Tolerant of religion because of trade with the Byzantine Empire and Islamic merchants CHANG'AN Chang'an Capital of the Qin, Sui, and Tang Dynasties
Huge Buddhist center (reaching its peak of influence in the 600's), which basically meant lots of pagodas
Center of trade due to the Silk Roads- it had direct trade routes with around five other major cities
904: Tang dynasty falls
When the Mongols attacked, everyone who hadn't already left during the Song Dynasty fled the old capital for Hangzhou SWAHILI CITY-STATES Swahili City-States Founded by Bantu people beginning in 500 CE
800: began trade with Persians, which eventually led to trade with China and India
Eventually ruled by Islamic people as their importance as trade cities was recognized and Islamic merchants integrated themselves into the community
Traded fur, gold, spices, and slaves in the Monsoon Marketplace and along the Trans-Saharan routes.
The cities became more agricultural with the introduction of crops like sweet potatoes and bananas
Hierarchy of craftsmen and merchants
No centralized government between the cities, just a common culture ROME Rome Founded 75 BCE
Really interesting last time period
This time period, there's a huge population drop
New center of the Catholic Church (think "Pope") CONSTANTINOPLE Constantinople/Byzantium/Istanbul Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, later the Byzantine Empire
Largest and most powerful city in Europe at the time
Center of trade at the Bosphorous Strait
Was frequently invaded (mostly by the Persians and Ottoman Turks)
1453: Constantinople fell to the Turks and became Istanbul PERSEPOLIS Persepolis Founded in 550 BCE by the Achaemenid empire (really interesting last time period, but not so much this time period)
Invaded by Alexander the Great in 330 and declined from there
Taken over by various caliphates TENOCHTITLAN Tenochtitlan Capital of the Aztec Empire (center for Aztec expansion)
founded in the early 1300's
location was determined by the Aztec religion
trade routes developed as far as the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific, and the Inca empire (?) HANGZHOU Hangzhou Built during the Qin Dynasty
at one end of the Grand Canal- lots of trade
famous for their exported glass
Trade caused a huge population boom
Capital moved to Hangzhou during the Song Dynasty and remained there even after the Mongol Yuan Dynasty
Buddhist and Daoist influence PATALIPUTRA Pataliputra Capital of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires (more interesting last time period)
Became more Hindu
Isolated from trade due to the Himalayas (darn interfering mountains!) TIMBUKTU Timbuktu Founded in 1100 CE under the Mali Empire (near the Niger River)
Visited by Ibn Battuta in 1353
lots of gold and resources and a location on a river made it a big trade city
King Mansa Musa made the city more Muslim (and therefore more profitable because of Muslim merchants)
A huge mosque was built which contributed to the Muslim population NOVGOROD Novgorod Originally part of the Kevian Rus, but broke off to become a republic
Part of the huge Hanseatic League, which dominated Black Sea trade
Sort of a spoke of the Silk Road
Had lots of raw materials (gems, metal, coal, stone, timber, FUR) in the forests to the north to trade)
Was quite frequently attacked because people wanted its wealth CALICUT Calicut In the Delhi Sultanate
Trading city- at one of the bottom spokes in the middle of the Silk Roads
Mainly Hindu
Visited by Ibn Battuta TEOTIHUACAN Teotihuacan More interesting last time period
Began to decline around 500-600 CE, possibly due to the Toltec, unless the Toltec were just a myth made up the Aztecs ITALIAN CITY-STATES Not really an empire, just cities (Venice, Florence, Piza, Rome (sorta))
Cities from the Holy Roman Empire before it collapsed
flourished between 1000 and 1400 CE due to renaissance and trade
predominantly Christian- took part in the crusades
The central power among the cities (if any) was the Pope/the Vatican
Lots of Mediterranean and Byzantine trade connections SOUTHEAST ASIAN CITY-STATES A bunch of city-states with relationships (trade) between each other
existed separately until the 1800's
Lots of trade because of the spice islands AZTEC EMPIRE Ruled by taking over small city-states, leaving the ruler in power, and forcing them to pay tribute to the larger Aztec government
Lots of trade in precious metals
Commoners were annoyed by the large amounts of tribute they had to pay
It was the first empire in this area BYZANTINE EMPIRE Originally practiced Roman Paganism, but switched to Christian Orthodoxy
Secular government with a state-sanctioned religion
Spoke Greek, rather than Roman
Emperors had absolute authority, especially over the economy
Used coined money, which kept the economy stable
The Justinian Code, developed by Emperor Justinian, was a set of laws that sort of followed Roman tradition and kept some of Roman culture and society alive MONGOL EMPIRE lasted from 1206-1368
very strict discipline- Yassa law code: governed everyone, very harsh
government officials were chosen based on merit
they pretty much conquered and looted everyone
believed in religious freedom
they lived in small, nomadic communities before expansion
Ghengis Khan began to expand the empire to its largest extent, but the empire broke up into the four Khanates eventually TANG CHINA 618-690 [brief interruption by Zhou Dynasty] 705-907
Capital was Chang'an
very militaristic- expanded China to its largest extent this time period
took very detailed censuses, mostly to make sure that they were getting all of their taxes
Used the silk roads for trade
Buddhism took off, but Confucianism was the primary belief system (Confucian Exams)
A structured hierarchy determined punishment
Golden age- invented printing and paper, lots of famous poetry INCA EMPIRE Began in the early 1200's, ended in 1572 with European colonization
Traditional monarchy; the king was held in high esteem as the son of the sun god
Very expansionist- according to their religion, the entire world belonged to the king, and if the king did not work to rule more of it during his reign, he had somehow failed.
Mit'a system of taxation for working males of a suitable age
Had a large backup food supply for times of need
Priests were involved in government
Trade within the empire (up and down mountains), but no one ever really crossed the Andes AMERICAN
CITY-STATES Consisted of lots of city-states scattered around the New World, so all of this is a generalization
Religious leaders were elevated to a high status in polytheistic religions
Depending on location, had to pay tribute to, traded with, and were heavily influenced by the Inca or Aztecs
Not much trade in general due to the environmental barriers and lack of domesticated animals SUI CHINA The dynasty in China right before the Tang Dynasty, from 581 to 618
Strict laws, similar to the Qin Dynasty last time period
Lots of Silk Road trade (as usual) FEUDAL JAPAN All of the emperors were from the same dynasty, but they were puppets of the Shogun, or chief warlord
Feudalism was prominent from 1185-1868
Very militaristic- army made up of Samurai (Japan's equivalent of a knight)
Used taxation, land, and Bushido code to control citizens ABBASID CALIPHATE 750 CE to 1258 CE
The capital was Baghdad (moved from Damascus to please the Persians)
Formed strong alliances with major powers by combining Persian and Arabic culture and religion, but was primarily Islamic
Some sort of monarchy-type thing
Very diverse empire because it was based around trade (lots of Muslim merchants)
As sultans became more independent, fighting began within the empire, so it was already weak when the Mongols showed up on their doorstep in 1258
Known as one of the golden ages of Islam SONG CHINA Followed the Tang Dynasty (and a brief period of chaos and anarchy) from 960 CE to 1279 CE
Capital at Hangzhou
Another golden age in China: very scientific and experimental people, inventing printing, the compass, gunpowder, and still writing poetry (but also more non-fiction texts)
Huge population boom due to the introduction of Champa rice varieties from Southeast Asia, which also caused more people to become agricultural
Neoconfucianism is on the rise and Buddhism sort of makes a comeback
Lots of iron and steel made for a strong military
Still trading along the Silk Roads AL-ANDALUS 711 CE to 1496 CE (ended with the start of the Spanish Inquisition)
Muslim state, but the government could (and did) include non-Muslims
Very intellectual- new developments in math and literacy
Established many universities and libraries DELHI SULTANATE Sunni Muslim empire from 1206-1526
Originally in a Hindu area, but Islam took hold in some parts of India
Lots of competition for the throne (six dynasties in all)
Because it was between the Silk Roads and the Monsoon Marketplace, there was lots of trade through the area
The Mongols invaded for a little while, but Tamerlane fought them off and reestablished the Sultanate NOMADIC PASTORALISM Practiced most notably by the Mongols
Basically, herding animals and following them around
Practice in the Central Asian steppe (rangeland/grassland-like environment)
Nomads wouldn't build permanent structures because they didn't have materials like trees and stone easily available
They kind of roam around with animal skin tents (yerts), which makes it easy to follow their herds
Not very large or structured societies (as usual, the Mongols are the exception to even their own rule) because there needed to be flexibility
Since wealth was in animals, animals were frequently stolen from other tribes, which meant it was necessary to be fast and warlike
Egalitarian- women were pretty much equal until empires became bigger MIT'A A system of taxation where people farm some of the year, and the rest of the year the have obligatory "community service hours" in the form of military or civic obligations
Practiced by the Inca
The Inca needed a strong military to keep up with expansion, so they called in extra farmers
Roads were built by workers to aid in administration or moving armies
People could pay taxes in money, but most people chose corvee labor instead. FEUDALISM Practiced in Europe and Japan
Basically, kings have some authority over lords, lords own land, peasants farm land for the lord, and knights work for the lord (i.e. lords have all of the power)
The result of the small lords and manors is that Europe is incredibly disunified in this time period
Most of Europe is supposedly under the Holy Roman Empire, but that's kind of irrelevant because it's not holy, nor is it Roman, nor is it an actual empire. FREE PEASANT SYSTEM Practiced in the Byzantine Empire and China
Little to no slavery; peasants grow food and sell it to make money, but some of this money is given to the government in the form of taxes
Peasants can do almost anything they want, provided that it is legal and the government gets their taxes
The taxes are often used to maintain a strong military, which is key to keeping the peasants in line on the off chance that they are unhappy and want things like "social mobility" and "rights" and decide to rebel SLAVERY SYSTEM Slaves were used mostly for *ahem* PERSONAL reasons, but there was the occasional maid or worker
Mostly used by the Ottoman Turks (and their harems)
This system caused a major increase in the slave trade
Some slaves were raised specifically to serve in the military TURKISH AND ARABIC
LANGUAGES Arabic developed in the Arabian Peninsula
Turkish developed from Arabic when Islam was introduced to the Ottoman Empire around 950
Both languages spread along trade routes
Crusaders who passed through the Ottoman Empire picked up Turkish
Islamic innovations were spread in the Arabic language, so scholars would often learn it
Both languages spread as their respective empires expanded BANTU LANGUAGES
AND PEOPLE Originated in West-Central Africa
Spread during the Bantu migration from 3000 BCE to 1180 CE
Migration was caused because the Bantus wanted more land for agriculture, climate changes, and population expansion required more room
The language merged with local languages and diversified to form the general Bantu language group CENTRAL ASIAN
STEPPE HORSES Steppe is a grassland or prairie environment specific to central Asia
People living there overcame the environment by breeding faster, stronger horses
These same people became really good at archery and cavalry
Horses were used mostly by nomads (like the Mongols) VIKING
LONGBOATS Vikings were originally Scandinavian
They needed more land for agriculture and general food sources
They built the big, fast, effective longboats to travel across the ocean better
This enabled the pillaging of cities that the Vikings are now famous for, because the boats could sail in very shallow water and move forwards and backwards, making for an easy retreat POLYNESIAN EXPANSION Polynesians came from... Polynesia!
They were experienced sailors and easily expanded from island to island, eventually occupying even Easter Island, the most remote place on earth
Mostly expanded to find more food or space to grow food
Killed off all of the megafauna that existed in these areas and had evolved without human interaction SOGDIANS Diasporic nomads from the provinces of the Achaemenid empire
Became the dominant traveling merchants on the silk roads before the Mongols
Facilitated trade from India to China
Lots of economic power with other merchants JEWISH
MERCHANTS There's really no good place to put the Jewish merchants on a map because they were everywhere- the Mediterranean, the Monsoon Marketplace, the Silk Roads- anywhere there was trade
They were constantly moving around after being exiled from Babylonia
Greatly assisted and facilitated trade, and made quite a profit acting as the middle man INCAN AND
AZTEC CULTURE Both were imperial empires, meaning they were constantly expanding
Incas were spreading culture within their empire because they had no outside contacts
Aztecs did little to exchange culture within its empire because they left the governments of the city-states the conquered intact, as long as they paid taxes, so the culture of their tributary states never changed
Aztecs claim to have been influenced by the Toltecs before them, but there is no evidence that Toltecs actually exist ISLAM Present within the Islamic caliphates and Al-Andalus, as well as in India (to some extent)
Spread to Southeast Asia (mostly Malaysia and Indonesia), which led to the founding of Melacca and the establishment of a merchant culture
Spread to Sub-Saharan Africa (Mali empire) via trade
Persian Muslims established governments in the Swahili city-states BUDDHISM Buddhism spread from India to China and Southeast Asia
It changed a lot and formed two major branches (Chen and Mahayana, but the only distinction that I ever noticed was that one Buddha is thin and one is fat)
Gave people a simple, easy belief system
Mostly spread via trade NEOCONFUCIANISM Spread within China by ZhuXi (the spelling is debatable)
Basically a revitalization of Confucianism with Buddhist and Daoist influences
This became the new basis for the Confucian Exam system
Lasted for a few hundred years IBN BATTUTA Muslim explorer who traveled pretty much everywhere in the known world for no good reason (he just wanted to see the world)
Most well-traveled man before the invention of the steam engine
He wrote an autobiography which was widely known and spread knowledge of other civilizations, causing an increase in cultural awareness and interaction
Made significant contributions to cartography MARCO POLO Venetian merchant who traveled from Venice to China and back again
Wrote a book about his travels that was popular in Europe
Opened Europe's eyes to innovations in the Far East and increased Silk Road trade XUANZANG Chinese Buddhist monk
Journeyed from India to China to learn about Indian Buddhism through their scriptures and monks
Caused the diffusion of different Buddhist ideas, bringing a fragmented religion closer to a whole belief system
Increased Indian-Chinese trade relationships
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