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Europe: East and West

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Matthew Smith

on 29 October 2012

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Transcript of Europe: East and West

Europe: East and West Russia Poland Lithuania Prussia Ottoman Empire Hungary Bohemia The East/ West Divide Persistence of Feudal structures
Weak to non-existent middle class
Compulsory labor- rabot
Agricultural estates as social organization
Inefficient systems of government
Diverse linguistic and cultural groups Holy Roman Empire fragmented joined crowns
King elected
mixture of Germans, Jews, Belorussians, and Lithuanians
Szlachta: the very large Polish aristocracy
Weak central Diet
Local principalities guarded their Polish liberties Coterminous with German States
Suffered during 30 Years War
Ineffective Imperial Diet
Broken commercial connections stifle growth. No colonies
No stock exchange
No uniform currency
No Gregorian calendar Any member could oppose a measure and vote to
disband of "explode the diet"

48 of 55 Diets exploded between 1652-1754 Muslim state conquered large areas of Europe
Socially organized, powerful state
Muslim law applied only to Muslims\
Semi-autonomous vassel states
Christians less desturbed in the Ottoman Empire than Protestants elsewhere in Europe!
Well organized Sultans and Grand Vizirs to keep Turkish order
Military force: The Janissaries Collapse of the Spanish Habsburg line
Withering of the Holy Roman Empire
Habsburgs had been Holy Roman Emperors since the 14th century Threat of the Turk Invaded Hungary in 1526
The Empire, led by Austria responsile for defending the European frontier.
Louis XIV incites Turks, Hungarians against Austrians
Vienna besieged by Turks, 1683- defended by John Sobieski
Prince Eugene of Savoy (French educated) takes control of Austrian military
Turks yield Hungary at the Peace of Karlowitz, 1699 Austria by 1740 possessed kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia- 3 crowns in one
international or non-national empire with German influence
interrupted by later national movements
government by the aristocracy
Rural areas remain feudal- serfs
Charles VI recognized as king- hereditary heir to many kingdoms of th empire
Pragmatic Sanction guaranteed Habsburg succession Built on Military Strength Austria Neither Holy, Roman, nor an Empire Brandenburg
Hohenzollern family- electors of Brandenburg
Inherited the Dutchy of Prussia (originally in Poland)
Fragmented territories leading into 30 years war
Frederick William, the Great Elector builds a strong military
Territory not unified- new goal
Military drove the economy, government policies
Aristocracy recruited to military service (Junkers)
Discouraged growth of Bourgeoisie
Serfs responsible to Junkers (neo-feudal system) Frederick III becomes King of Prussia (Frederick I) in exchange for support of the Holy Roman Emporer during the War of Spanish Succession (1701) Frederick William I
continued military development 1713-1740
military expanded to 100,000
miserly, rude to subjects, always in uniform
famous Prussian military discipline Frederick II, the Great (1740-1786)
Conquered Silesia from Poland
Enlightened despotism- Voltaire
Modernized bureaucracy and economy Narva, Estonia Situated on prominent trade routes
Danish rule in 12th-13th centuries
Brief periods of Russian Rule
16th-17th century Swedish rule
Conquered by Russia in 1704 during the Great Northern War
Baroque style town center decimated in WWII and Soviet era. Pecs, Hungary Invaded by Ottoman Turks after deafeat at Battle of Mohacs in 1526
Town remained under Ottoman control until end of 17th century
Ottomans build mosques and bath houses
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