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Freud - Intro to Theories of Unconsciousness

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Michael Ungar

on 27 February 2018

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Transcript of Freud - Intro to Theories of Unconsciousness

Freud - Intro to Theories of Unconsciousness & Dreams
Adler
Jung
Hall
Perls
So-what are dreams, really?
Freud
Dreams occur during REM sleep
(Rapid Eye Movement).

Sigmund Freud
was an Austrian psychologist and is considered to be "the father of psychoanalysis." Psychoanalysis is the study of the unconscious mind and the treatment of mental illness by resolving the conflicts created between the conscious and unconscious.
Id, Ego, and Superego
Id-
instinctual desires
Almost always had something to do with sexual repression.
Ego-
Moral Compass-
Passively determined the superego's actions, based on social capability
Superego-

Id filter, conscience.
Actively represses the Id based on the Ego's commands - what is socially acceptable
Manifest and Latent Content

MANIFEST content is what the dream literally displays.

LATENT content is the result of analyzing manifesting content; interpreting the symbols hidden within the dream.
Freudian Dream Image Classification
Displacement- Desire for a person or thing symbolized in the form of a different object
Projection- Projecting your own desires and wants onto another person in your dream
Symbolization- When your inner desires and wants are presented as metaphors
Condensation- When the dreamer subconsciously represses his or her feelings & urges by underplaying them or skipping over them during a dream

Rationalization- The act of compressing all of your internal thoughts/desires/etc into something comprehensible. This final stage of the dream is your mind associating imagery with the messages in your dream.
1:07 - 1:35
Carl Jung's theories are similar to his former mentor, Freud's. Both believe in the existance of the unconscious, but Jung's theory is centered around the individual's acceptance and utilization of the dream, rather than the unconscious being a separate entity and the dream being its world.

the Goal: To develop a "whole" conscious" by using the dream to solve conscious problems.

Jung believes that the dream's manifest content is equally important as the latent content. For example, a dream that involves standing on a cliff could be literally directly connected to a fear of heights. (not anything deeper such as Freudian analysis suggests).


Alfred Alder's philosophy dictates that dreams are a representation of the problems that the dreamer has. He says that the primary forces driving your conscious behavior are a desire for power and control, and that dreams provide insight on how to better understand your own goals so that you can work towards making them a reality. His belief that dreams are tools to be used to interpret yourself aligns with Jung's similar belief.
Frederick Perls theorized that dreams contain the rejected and disowned parts of your sense of self--Everything in your dream is some part of you, and every part in that dream is either the source of a problem or something that the problem affects.
Perls was also a staunch advocate of physically acting out your dreams in therapy. In order to recognise the problems that your dreams represented, Perls advised experiencing those problems manifest.
Jung believes that dream interpretation is a personal matter, and no one is better suited for it than the dreamer.

collective unconscious: the innate collection of thoughts and instincts in every human. The collective unconscious is the default set of mental content present in every human's individual unconscious.

the shadow:
Like Freud, Jung believes that the ego is your sense of self awareness. He also believes in a counter-ego he refers to as the shadow. The shadow represents the rejected / hidden aspects of yourself. In dreams, the shadow is threatening and provokes a negative reaction such as fear, anger, or disgust. - Jung says to accept the shadow as yourself.
Calvin S. Hall belived that dreams are meant to act as a map to thoughts that your unconscious mind has, but your conscious one doesn't. He theorizes that dreams should be used to help learn more about yourself.
He also theorizes that all dreams fall under one of 5 categories depending on their content.
Hall's 5 Dream concepts
Concepts of Self- Dreams where you play a different role than you normally would
Concepts of Other People- Dreams concerning your interaction with others.
Concepts of the World- the surroundings of the dream, and the represetation of
Concepts of Impulses, Prohibitions, and Penalties-
Serve as indicators, and illustrate the role of rules and punishment in your behavior
Concepts of Problems and Conflicts-
Symbolize your realf-life struggles and problems. Often the mot useful for resolving confliicts.
Carl Jung's Archetypes
1. Persona: The persona is what represents you in the dream. (even if it doesn't resemble you)

2. Anima / Animus: Your masculine and feminine qualities. It means that you should recognize a certain side. (extremely masculine or feminine person)
3. The Divine Child: purity (baby or small child)

4. The Great Mother: guidance, positive or negative. (represented by a mother or a witch like figure)

5. The Trickster: emphasizes insecurity and indecisiveness. Makes you feel embarrassed.
Archetypal dreams are called
"mythic dreams"
Freud wanted to search for the causes for hysteric behavior which had been presumed to be inexplicable.

His theory held that slips of tongue/pen (Freudian slips), obsessive behavior, and dreams were caused by parts of the mind hidden and suppressed from our consciousness.

Such unconscious thought could not be brought into the consciousness except through psychoanalysis --- the examination of past experiences, childhood, and dreams.

The unconscious is motivated by instinct, forces that energize the mind and its functions:



The Structure of the Mind
- also called the Tripartite because it contains three main parts:

Id
: instinctual, sexual drives that require satisfaction

Superego
: the conscience; the filter that allows one to act in a socially acceptable manner. It is usually imparted by parenting.

Ego
: the conscious self that balances the needs of the id and superego so that one's actions meet the requirements of their external reality

Conflict between the Tripartite - Freud believed that the parts of the Tripartite had to work together harmoniously, otherwise there would be conflict, and neurosis would occur as a result.

There are mechanisms to keep such conflicts from becoming to acute:

Repression: pushing the conflicts into the unconscious

Sublimination: Channeling one's instinctual drives into socially acceptable achievements in fields such as art, science, or poetry

Fixation: the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stages (One must become aware of the stage they did not pass)

Regression: Obtaining the characteristics of a previous stage (Same mechanism as previous)

The most important mechanism was repression.
If one wanted to behave in a way the superego deemed unacceptable, such desire would simply be pushed into the id so that the conflict would not need to be confronted, and one would be unaware of it. This often occurs during one's transition from childhood to adulthood, when one is most conscious of oneself.

Such unconscious thought could not be brought into the consciousness except through psychoanalysis --- the examination of past experiences, childhood, and dreams.
Freud revolutionized the study of the mind with his work The Interpretation of Dreams.

Freud believed that nothing you do occurs by chance; every action and thought is motivated by your unconscious at some level.

In order to live in a civilized society, you have a tendency to hold back our urges and repress our impulses.

However, these urges and impulses must be released in some way; they have a way of coming to the surface in disguised forms.
One way these urges and impulses are released is through your dreams. Because the content of the unconscious may be extremely disturbing or harmful, Freud believed that the unconscious expressed itself in a symbolic language.
When you are awake, the impulses and desires of the id are suppressed by the superego. Through dreams, you are able to get a glimpse into your unconscious or the id.

Because your guard is down during the dream state, your unconscious has the opportunity to act out and express the hidden desires of the id.

However, the desires of the id can, at times, be so disturbing and even psychologically harmful that a "censor" comes into play and translates the id's disturbing content into a more acceptable symbolic form.

This helps to preserve sleep and prevent you from waking up shocked at the images. As a result, confusing and cryptic dream images occur.
According to Freud, the reason you struggle to remember your dreams, is because the superego is at work.

It is doing its job by protecting the conscious mind from the disturbing images and desires conjured by the unconscious.
Freud's Influence on the Arts
(9:42)
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