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Transformations in Commerce
Transcript of Transformations in Commerce
Harty, AP World History
Europe and Indian Ocean Trade
Europeans wanted commercial connections with Asia.
Columbus and Vasco da Gama both sought a route to Asia
Wanted spices above ALL else.
Europe had recovered from the Black Death
Monarchies were learning to govern more effectively
Why find their own way?
Muslims controlled supply
Venice was chief intermediary for trade with Alexandria; other states resented it
Desire to find Prester John and enlist his support in the Crusades.
Constant trade deficit with Asia
Fur Trade in N. America
Fur Trade in Russia
Portuguese Trading Empire
Spain and the Philippines
Dutch East India Company
British East India Company
Japan and Trade
Silver and Furs
History in Context
Impacts of Slave Trade
Slave Trade in the Americas
How did Portugal get in first?
Used piracy, and their ships were more maneuverable, carried cannons
established fortified bases at key cities like Hormuz, Malacca, and Macao
How Portugal became a Trading Post Empire.
goal was to control commerce, territories or populations
done by weapons strength.
at height, controlled about half of the spice trade to Europe
Of course, with any trade over time, Portuguese merchants will start to assimilate to the local cultures in the Indian Ocean.
Their trading post empire was in steep decline by 1600.
Spain was the first to challenge Portugal’s control of Asian trade b/c $$$.
SP (Spain) takes the Philippines after Magellan circumnavigated the globe in 1521.
Before: Philippines were organized in small, competitive chiefdoms
During: SP takes Philippines as colonies in 1565-1650.
Remained a SP colonial territory until 1898, when the United States assumed control (we'll talk about the SP-AM War later).
major missionary campaign made Filipino society the only major Christian outpost in Asia
Manila became a major center with a diverse population
periodic revolts by the Chinese population; Spaniards expelled or massacred them several times
Dutch and English both entered Indian Ocean commerce in the early seventeenth century
they kicked out the Portuguese and competed w/ each other.
Around (circa) 1600 both the Dutch and the English organized private trading companies to handle Indian Ocean trade
Joint-Stock: merchants invested, shared the risks w/ gov'ts and other investors. Dutch and British East India companies were chartered by their governments
They had power to make war and govern conquered peoples and established their own trading post empires
a. Dutch empire was focused on Indonesia
b. English empire was focused on India
Dutch East India Company controlled both shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg.
They seized small spice-producing islands and forced people to sell only to the Dutch.
They also destroyed the local economy of the Spice Islands; made the Dutch rich
They even tried to colonize Taiwan, but China beat them out.
The BEIC was not as well financed or as commercially sophisticated as the Dutch, so they couldn’t break into the Spice Islands
So, instead they established three major trade settlements in India during the 17th century
The BR navy gained control of Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf, but could not compete with the Mughal Empire on land.
Instead, they negotiated with local rulers for peaceful establishment of trade bases to trade pepper but eventually COTTON.
Eventually, BEIC and DUIC become like traditional colonial rulers.
Portuguese reached Japan in the mid- sixteenth century, and Japan at the time was divided by constant conflict among feudal lords (daimyo) supported by samurai.
At first, Europeans were welcome, but JP unified politically under the Tokugawa shogun in the early 17th century
increasingly saw Europeans as a threat to unity, so they expelled Christians, relegated Dutch to one port.
Japanese were kept from travel abroad and JP was closed off from Europe from 1650 to 1850... once more opened thanks to 'Murica. We'll talk about it later.
Asian merchants continued to operate, despite European presence.
The silver trade was even more important than the spice trade in creating a global exchange network.
enormous silver deposits were discovered in Bolivia and Japan in the mid-sixteenth century
in the early modern period, SP America produced around 85% of the world’s silver (using forced labor- mita)
China wanted silver and in the 1570s the Ming consolidated taxes into a single tax to be paid in silver.
Soooo the value of silver skyrocketed and foreigners with silver could purchase more Chinese products than before.
“Silver drain” to Asia: bulk of the world’s silver supply ended up in China.
silver also bought African slaves and Asian spices
the Spanish currency “piece of eight” was widely used for international exchange
Potosí, Bolivia, became the largest city in the Americas (population: 160,000) because it was at the world’s largest silver mine
Silver vastly enriched the Spanish monarchy, but it caused inflation, not real economic growth. Plus, when the value of silver fell around 1600, SP lost its dominance too.
Europeans were essentially middlemen in world trade.
Japanese government profited more from silver production than did Spain.
Tokugawa shoguns used silver revenues to defeat rivals to unify the country and worked w/ merchants to develop a market-based economy (ag and industry).
In China, silver further commercialized the country’s economy. The CH people needed to sell something to obtain silver to pay their taxes, so their economy became more regionally specialized. Deforestation was a growing problem; wasn’t addressed as it was in Japan.
Europeans: usually traded with Indians for furs or skins, rather than hunting or trapping animals themselves, and many animal species were depleted through overhunting
Native Americans: fur trade was profitable for the Indians as they received many goods of real value.
Huron chiefs enhanced their authority with control of European goods, but Indians fell prey to European diseases and higher levels of inter-Indian warfare.
Native Americans became dependent on European trade goods like iron tools, cooking pots, gunpowder weapons, and European textiles.
Alcohol especially destructive within Indian societies.
Social Impacts: many native women married European traders --> cross-cultural exchange. The status of men was enhanced by the focus on hunting.
Profits of fur trade were the main incentive for Russian expansion and had a similar toll on native Siberians as it had on Indians
dependence on Russian goods and loss of fur-bearing animals
Russians didn’t have competition, so they forced Siberians to provide furs instead of negotiating commercial agreements
Private Russian hunters and trappers competed directly with Siberians
Between the mid-fifteenth and mid- nineteenth centuries, the Atlantic slave trade took an estimated 10.7 million people from Africa to the Americas.
Millions more died in the process, making a vast human tragedy
African slave trade transformed the societies of all participants
The African diaspora created racially mixed societies in the Americas
slave trade and slavery enriched many
slavery became a metaphor for many types of social oppression
Most human societies have had slaves, and Africans had practiced slavery and sold slaves for centuries.
Ex:trans-Saharan trade took slaves to the Mediterranean world and the East African slave trade
Slavery has taken many forms, depending on the region and time period.
slaves were often assimilated into their owners’ households and children of slaves were sometimes free, sometimes slaves
Islamic world preferred female slaves; Atlantic slave trade favored males
Americas slavery was largely based on plantation agriculture, with slaves denied any rights at all slave status was inherited.
widespread slavery in society that valued human freedom and equality— unlike anywhere else except maybe ancient Greece
slavery was wholly identified with Africa and race.
Origins in Sugar Trade/Production: sugar production was the first “modern” industry (major capital investment, technology, disciplined workers, mass market)
the work was very difficult and dangerous—slaves were ideal (at first, Slavs from the Black Sea region) provided most slaves for Mediterranean sugar plantations.
But, the Portuguese found an alternative slave source in West Africa and Africans became the primary source of slave labor for the Americas b/c slavs weren't available, and natives had no immunity to Euro diseases.
Slave trade was driven by European demand but Europeans didn’t raid Africa for slaves; they traded freely with African merchants and elites
from capture to sale on the coast, trade was in African hands and Africans received trade goods in return, often bought with American silver
Middle Passage: harrowing journey for the slaves which resulted in 15% dying from horrid conditions.
By 17th century, slave trade at its peak, taking vast majority of slaves to Brazil and Caribbean.
Created new transregional linkages
Slowed Africa’s growth, while Europe and China expanded in population
sub-Saharan Africa had about 18% of the world’s population in 1600 but only 6 percent in 1900.
slave trade generated economic stagnation and political disruption in Africa
those who profited in the trade did not invest in production and did not generate breakthroughs in agriculture or industry—since Europeans didn’t increase demand for Africa’s products, just for its people
Social effects: fostered moral corruption, unbalanced gender ratios in Africa leading to more use of women for labor (including slavery in W. Africa).
some women married Euro merchants and created their own trading empire, and some women even ruled local kingdoms.